Exodus 10:

21 And the LORD said unto Moses, Stretch out thine hand toward heaven, that there may be darkness over the land of Egypt, even darkness which may be felt.
22 And Moses stretched forth his hand toward heaven; and there was a thick darkness in all the land of Egypt three days:

23 They saw not one another, neither rose any from his place for three days: but all the children of Israel had light in their dwellings.

 

1 John 1:

9. If we confess our sins, he is faithful and just to forgive us our sins, and to cleanse us from all unrighteousness.

 

Isaiah 60:

1. Arise, shine; for thy light is come, and the glory of the LORD is risen upon thee.

2. For, behold, the darkness shall cover the earth, and gross darkness the people: but the LORD shall arise upon thee, and his glory shall be seen upon thee.

3. And the Gentiles shall come to thy light, and kings to the brightness of thy rising.

4. Lift up thine eyes round about, and see: all they gather themselves together, they come to thee: thy sons shall come from far, and thy daughters shall be nursed at thy side.

5. Then thou shalt see, and flow together, and thine heart shall fear, and be enlarged; because the abundance of the sea shall be converted unto thee, the forces of the Gentiles shall come unto thee.

6. The multitude of camels shall cover thee, the dromedaries of Midian and Ephah; all they from Sheba shall come: they shall bring gold and incense; and they shall shew forth the praises of the LORD.

 

Matthew 24:

14. And this gospel of the kingdom shall be preached in all the world for a witness unto all nations; and then shall the end come.

 

Revelation 12:
14. And to the woman were given two wings of a great eagle, that she might fly into the wilderness, into her place, where she is nourished for a time, and times, and half time, from the face of the serpent.

17. And the dragon was wroth with the woman, and went to make war with the remnant of her seed, which keep the commandments of God, and have the testimony of Jesus Christ.

 

Daniel 7:

21. I beheld, and the same horn made war with the saints, and prevailed against them;

22. Until the Ancient of days came, and judgment was given to the saints of the most High; and the time came that the saints possessed the kingdom.

25. And he shall speak great words against the most High, and shall wear out the saints of the most High, and think to change times and laws: and they shall be given into his hand until a time and times and the dividing of time.

 

Daniel 12:

7. And I heard the man clothed in linen, which was upon the waters of the river, when he held up his right hand and his left hand unto heaven, and sware by him that liveth for ever that it shall be for a timetimesand an half; and when he shall have accomplished to scatter the power of the holy people, all these things shall be finished.

 

Revelation 6:

12 And I beheld when he had opened the sixth seal, and, lo, there was a great earthquake; and the sun became black as sackcloth of hair, and the moon became as blood;

13 And the stars of heaven fell unto the earth, even as a fig tree casteth her untimely figs, when she is shaken of a mighty wind.

14 And the heaven departed as a scroll when it is rolled together; and every mountain and island were moved out of their places.

15 And the kings of the earth, and the great men, and the rich men, and the chief captains, and the mighty men, and every bondman, and every free man, hid themselves in the dens and in the rocks of the mountains;

16 And said to the mountains and rocks, Fall on us, and hide us from the face of him that sitteth on the throne, and from the wrath of the Lamb:

17 For the great day of his wrath is come; and who shall be able to stand?

 

 Joel 2:

26 And ye shall eat in plenty, and be satisfied, and praise the name of the LORD your God, that hath dealt wond rously with you: and my people shall never be ashamed.

27 And ye shall know that I am in the midst of Israel, and that I am the LORD your God, and none else: and my people shall never be ashamed.

28 And it shall come to pass afterward, that I will pour out my spirit upon all flesh; and your sons and your daughters shall prophesy, your old men shall dream dreams, your young men shall see visions:

29 And also upon the servants and upon the handmaids in those days will I pour out my spirit.

30 And I will shew wonders in the heavens and in the earth, blood, and fire, and pillars of smoke.

31 The sun shall be turned into darkness, and the moon into blood, before the great and the terrible day of the LORD come.

32 And it shall come to pass, that whosoever shall call on the name of the LORD shall be delivered: for in mount Zion and in Jerusalem shall be deliverance, as the LORD hath said, and in the remnant whom the LORD shall call.

 

Matthew 24:

29 Immediately after the tribulation of those days shall the sun be darkened, and the moon shall not give her light, and the stars shall fall from heaven, and the powers of the heavens shall be shaken:

30 And then shall appear the sign of the Son of man in heaven: and then shall all the tribes of the earth mourn, and they shall see the Son of man coming in the clouds of heaven with power and great glory.

 

Isaiah 26:

20 Come, my people, enter thou into thy chambers, and shut thy doors about thee: hide thyself as it were for a little moment, until the indignation be overpast.
 

21 For, behold, the LORD cometh out of his place to punish the inhabitants of the earth for their iniquity: the earth also shall disclose her blood, and shall no more cover her slain.

 

Jonah 1:
17 Now the LORD had prepared a great fish to swallow up Jonah. And Jonah was in the belly of the fish three days and three nights.
 
Jonah 2:
1 Then Jonah prayed unto the LORD his God out of the fish's belly,
 

2 And said, I cried by reason of mine affliction unto the LORD, and he heard me; out of the belly of hell cried I, and thou heardest my voice.

3 For thou hadst cast me into the deep, in the midst of the seas; and the floods compassed me about: all thy billows and thy waves passed over me.

Then I said, I am cast out of thy sight; yet I will look again toward thy holy temple.

The waters compassed me about, even to the soul: the depth closed me round about, the weeds were wrapped about my head.

I went down to the bottoms of the mountains; the earth with her bars was about me for ever: yet hast thou brought up my life from corruption, O LORD my God.

When my soul fainted within me I remembered the LORD: and my prayer came in unto thee, into thine holy temple.

They that observe lying vanities forsake their own mercy.

But I will sacrifice unto thee with the voice of thanksgiving; I will pay that that I have vowed. Salvation is of the LORD.

10 And the LORD spake unto the fish, and it vomited out Jonah upon the dry land.

 

Matthew 12:

38 Then certain of the scribes and of the Pharisees answered, saying, Master, we would see a sign from thee.

39 But he answered and said unto them, An evil and adulterous generation seeketh after a sign; and there shall no sign be given to it, but the sign of the prophet Jonas:

40 For as Jonas was three days and three nights in the whale's belly; so shall the Son of man be three days and three nights in the heart of the earth.

41 The men of Nineveh shall rise in judgment with this generation, and shall condemn it: because they repented at the preaching of Jonas; and, behold, a greater than Jonas is here.

 

Luke 11:
29 And when the people were gathered thick together, he began to say, This is an evil generation: they seek a sign; and there shall no sign be given it, but the sign of Jonas the prophet.

30 For as Jonas was a sign unto the Ninevites, so shall also the Son of man be to this generation.

 

Matthew 16:

1 The Pharisees also with the Sadducees came, and tempting desired him that he would shew them a sign from heaven.

He answered and said unto them, When it is evening, ye say, It will be fair weather: for the sky is red.

And in the morning, It will be foul weather to day: for the sky is red and lowring. O ye hypocrites, ye can discern the face of the sky; but can ye not discern the signs of the times?

4 A wicked and adulterous generation seeketh after a sign; and there shall no sign be given unto it, but the sign of the prophet Jonas. And he left them, and departed.

 

Joel 2:
1 Blow ye the trumpet in Zion, and sound an alarm in my holy mountain: let all the inhabitants of the land tremble: for the day of the LORD cometh, for it is nigh at hand;

A day of darkness and of gloominess, a day of clouds and of thick darkness, as the morning spread upon the mountains: a great people and a strong; there hath not been ever the like, neither shall be any more after it, evento the years of many generations.

 

Ezekiel 32:
7 And when I shall put thee out, I will cover the heaven, and make the stars thereof dark; I will cover the sun with a cloud, and the moon shall not give her light.

All the bright lights of heaven will I make dark over thee, and set darkness upon thy land, saith the Lord GOD.

 

Joel 3:
14 Multitudes, multitudes in the valley of decision: for the day of the LORD is near in the valley of decision.

15 The sun and the moon shall be darkened, and the stars shall withdraw their shining.

16 The LORD also shall roar out of Zion, and utter his voice from Jerusalem; and the heavens and the earth shall shake: but the LORD will be the hope of his people, and the strength of the children of Israel.

 

VISION - DARK MATTER

Posted: 11 Sep 2018 03:37 AM PDT

Habakkuk 2:1-3
I will stand upon my watch, and set me upon the tower, and will watch to see what he will say unto me, and what I shall answer when I am reproved. 
2 And the Lord answered me, and said, Write the vision, and make it plain upon tables, that he may run that readeth it. 
3 For the vision is yet for an appointed time, but at the end it shall speak, and not lie: though it tarry, wait for it; because it will surely come, it will not tarry.
 
The Lord gave me a vision last month, but I have not felt to release it until He told me to do so today. Like most people, I had heard the term Dark Matter in the past, as it was mentioned in shows like Star Trek, etc., but I never really paid much attention to it, was not familiar with its meaning and had never looked into it or done any research on it. As with any dream, vision, or word, please pray over it and take it to the Lord for confirmation. 
 
During prayer today, the Lord spoke to me and said: "My son, go ahead and share Dark Matter, for that time is near. Be blessed during this time of the feasts. I am coming soon."
 
VISION: On August 8, 2018, during my time of prayer, I heard the Lord speak to me the words "Dark Matter." At first I thought, what is that, Dark Matter? I continued to pray, but the Lord then repeated it several more times, and I thought, Lord, why are you telling me this? Again, I continued on with praying, but after He repeated it a few more times, I felt to stop praying and listen to what He wanted to tell me. I sat down with my Bible, and was drawn to the scriptures listed above. I then asked the Lord if this is where He wanted me to read, and He replied, "Yes. Dark Matter."
 
As soon as He said that, I was instantly drawn into an open eye vision and taken to a location where I found myself standing directly in front of the statue of the goddess Shiva that is in front of the CERN facility. I felt the presence of the Lord to my side and I asked Him, "What am I doing here?" He then asked me, "What do you see?" I said, "I see a false god named Shiva." The Lord said to me, "What does it represent?" Not really being 100% sure, I said, "I think it represents chaos and destruction." He said, " My son, you are correct. In a very short time from now, America will live this." I understand this to mean that America will soon be living chaos and destruction.
 
I then asked the Lord, "What about Dark Matter? I understand America will live chaos and destruction, so why are you saying Dark Matter?" Upon asking that, I was immediately taken inside of the CERN building, and the Lord and I were standing at the back of a large room that looked like some type of laboratory. Directly in front of me on the other side of the room, I could see a man from the back, and he was standing and facing some type of glassed-in, contained area. He had on a white lab coat and his arms were inside of gloves that were inserted through the glass into this area. It looked like one of those precaution areas that are used to keep from getting exposure to some dangerous substance. 
 
Then the Lord brought me closer to the man so I could get a better view and observe what he was doing. I found myself standing just to the side and slightly behind the man and was able to see through the glass wall and watch him while he was working. I saw many tiny, silver-colored vials in rows in a container on the counter inside the glass. They looked to be about 1 inch high and 1/2 inch in diameter. The man was using extreme caution as he worked. He used mechanical fingers to very carefully pick up one vial at a time and then slowly place it in a small box. He then closed and sealed the lid on the box and then slowly brought it out through the glassed area and carefully placed it on a table beside him. I watched him do this a couple of times. Then with the next box, as he was pulling it out through the glass, the lid accidentally got caught and popped open. With that, the vial flew out of the box, hit the floor and broke.
 
Immediately, and I mean IMMEDIATELY, the room filled with darkness, so dark and so fast that I could not see a thing. i can only say that it was almost like the darkness exploded into the room and filled the entire room in a fraction of a second. I could not see a thing, it was total pitch black darkness. The next thing I knew, we were outside of the CERN building, and I saw the darkness fly out of the building and begin to expand out in every direction. The more it spread, the faster it seemed to go, covering more and more.
 
The Lord then said, "Dark Matter will cover the world for 3 days. The people in this building will be responsible for unleashing Dark Matter. They are collecting it to use as a weapon. A drop of Dark Matter escapes, and the world is plunged into darkness. During this time, portals will be opened, and unimaginable things will be loosed upon man."
 
The Lord then brought me up above the building, and I watched this darkness rapidly expand exponentially across the land. He took me up very high to where I had a view of the whole earth. I watched as the darkness spread so quickly, going out in every direction until it covered the whole world. 
 
As the vision was ending, the Lord showed me a man's face in the distance. As I continued to watch, his face was brought in closer and closer, and got larger and clearer. When his face was close to me, I saw that this man had a gray beard, longer grayish hair, and had on a lab coat. There was a look of horror on his face with his eyes wide open and as if he was screaming out in terror. He looked like a scientist and reminded me somewhat of Albert Einstein. I got the sense that this man was the scientist responsible for the incident. The vision ended.
 
The Lord then spoke these words to me, "My son, I have shown you this to prepare the people, to prepare My Remnant. The Dark Matter will diffuse in 3 days, and light will return to earth. NOTHING WILL BE THE SAME EVER AGAIN!!! I AM COMING SOON - THROUGH THE DARK MATTER!!! BE READY, MY REMNANT!!! 
I love you all! Amen.
Messiah Jesus
 

Amos 8:

9 And it shall come to pass in that day says the Lord God that i will make the sun go down at noon and i will darken the earth in broad daylight

 

Ezekiel 34:

11 God, the True Shepherd ‘For thus says the Lord God: “Indeed I Myself will search for My sheep and seek them out.

12 As a shepherd seeks out his flock on the day he is among his scattered sheep, so will I seek out My sheep and deliver them from all the places where they were scattered on a cloudy and dark day.

 

Isaiah 13:

10 For the stars of heaven and their constellations Will not give their light; The sun will be darkened in its going forth, And the moon will not cause its light to shine.

 

Joel 2:

10 The earth shall quake before them, the heavens shall tremble: the sun and the moon shall be dark, and the stars shall withdraw their shining.

 

Zephaniah 1:

15 The day is a day of wrath, A day of trouble and distress, A day of devastation and desolation, A day of darkness and gloominess, A day of clouds and thick darkness.

 

Links to 3 Day of Darkness (there are many more, but these are the ones I felt lead to share):

https://youtu.be/nkw_cKQyiEM

https://youtu.be/sCWxWUG0tKw

https://youtu.be/XqehWQ1McYU

https://youtu.be/lv3WiV-5rsw

 

Prophecies on 3 Days of Darkness:

https://444prophecynews.com/darkness-...

https://444prophecynews.com/vision-da...

https://444prophecynews.com/watch-the...

 

Link to Explanation of Revelation 6:

https://bibleview.org/en/bible/revela...

 

Link to angels being referred to as stars:

http://youtu.be/sHweRNp5MXA

 

If you have not yet given your life to Jesus, please read!!

 

“The Romans Road”

 

We need Jesus. He is the only way, the only truth, and the only life. We cannot step into heaven and stand before the Father without Him. (John 14:6)

 

When we accept Jesus as our personal savior, our names are written in the Lamb’s Book of Life. “And anyone whose name was not found written in the book of life was thrown into the lake of fire.” Revelation‬ ‭20:15‬ ‭

 

This is the most important decision of your life, your eternity! When you give your life to Jesus, you become justified by His grace. When we step into eternity and stand before the Father to be judged, He will see is the blood atonement that Jesus made for us. He will see us as spotless, flawless, people. That is what Jesus did when He died on that cross. His resurrection then defeated death and hell! “Death has been swallowed up in victory. Where, death, is your victory? Where, death, is your sting?” 1 Corinthians‬ ‭15:55

 

The book of Romans gives us the path to eternity with the Father and the Son. This is that path:

 

Romans 3:10 “as it is written: There is no one righteous, not even one.” ‭‭

Romans 3:23 “For all have sinned and fall short of the glory of God.” ‭‭

Romans 6:23 “For the wages of sin is death, but the gift of God is eternal life in Christ Jesus our Lord.”

Romans 5:8 “But God proves his own love for us in that while we were still sinners, Christ died for us.”

Romans 10:9 “If you confess with your mouth, “Jesus is Lord,” and believe in your heart that God raised him from the dead, you will be saved.” ‭

Romans 10:13 “For everyone who calls on the name of the Lord will be saved.”

 

Please pray this prayer:

Dear Lord Jesus, I am a sinner.

Please forgive me of my sins.

Please come into my life and cleanse me if my unbelief.

I believe in you, and in the salvation you alone provide through the blood Jesus shed for me.

I turn from my sin and trust in Jesus alone. I accept Him as my personal Lord and savior.

In Jesus Holy name I pray,

Amen

 

Source: https://444prophecynews.com/2018/10/

 

 

278pikelk
Warning to the Bride!

Published May 14, 2014

 

Transcript:

My daughter, share this warning with those have ears to hear. Catastrophic events warned of by many of My messengers are coming to your once great nation and world soon. Not one will be shielded from seeing the destruction. Destruction will come from the elements, fire and water primarily but you will also experience earthquakes and volcanoes throughout your earth. However, space will begin colliding with your once great nation and the world, like nothing you’ve ever witnessed in the past. Things will never go back to what you perceive as normal. Once these things start, the end of the earth as you’ve known it will begin. Disasters that have taken place in the past and recent past will not hold a candle to what is coming on your earth, My children. You will only have your memories of what once was. There will be three days of darkness where My bride will be transformed into her new incorruptible body. During this time she will be visible to others but they will clearly see the changes taking place in My bride. People will look on and off as My bride puts on the new and discards the old. She will be given a new flesh that is not flesh as you would recognize flesh, an incorruptible flesh. She will be given heightened awareness into the spiritual realm. She will be one in thought with the entirety of My bride and they will come together to receive their garments and their duties. There are many to remain here on this earth whom My bride will be in charge of turning toward their Creator. There will be an evil and a good. There will be evil and good hearts, and the good hearts will truly know their Father and will be able to see that My bride is of Me and that the others are imposters. My bride are Spirit filled believers that have emptied their flesh of this world and surrendered fully to Me. They are My warriors for this time and they will be warring for the hearts and minds of those left on this earth, to either eventually turn to Me or to take the mark of the beast. My bride is very important and will lead many home to Me. When they see the imposters, when people see the imposters, they will think that they are part of My bride. But people with Me in their hearts will quickly figure out the truth. Warn people, the people of light are truly dark and they are put on this earth to do nothing but deceive. There are very many believers who have never received My Holy Spirit or who have received My Holy Spirit but have quelled Him to where He has never been able to bring them along on their journey towards Me. There are many who believe in Me but who have become entangled in false teachings and doctrines of men. They will not want to believe that this is the end. My bride will have to educate them. There are millions and millions of people who know of Me but are seeking to know Me. My bride will introduce her groom. The job of the bride will not be easy but she will be equipped with her new and glorious body filled with My supernatural light and love. The imposters, though, children of light, will be children of darkness sent to confuse and mislead humans to choosing Satan as their father instead of their actual Father and Creator. These imposters will be arriving on the scene soon. Most of the people of the world are completely unaware of all that is to come and will be totally taken by surprise. Just remember, My children, that there is no man good. Do not be deceived. Come to Me in prayer for answers to all of your questions. The deceivers will try to place an imposter in front of you that is so real, if you did not know My Word, you would be fooled, but many will be fooled. This is why I must use My bride to convince those that know of Me and just don’t know Me or My Word, not to fall for this great deception. My children I love you so. My bride must know she will remain protected until she reveals herself and her new incorruptible body. My bride needs to be aware of what is coming. I have chosen some very unlikely vessels to be My bride. Do not doubt your worthiness, My bride, because no one is worthy but by the blood of the Lamb. Prepare for battle My bride.


Transcript: Bring My Word to the nations now. Now is the time as your redemption draweth nigh. I will never run out of messages for you to give to My people. Open your heart and mind to what I Am saying and let Me guide you. Tell My people this. Fear will grip your world and nation soon. Having your mind set on Me will deliver you from this fear. I will deliver My saints from the upheaval that is upon you. Soon there will be unthinkable things that start happening around you. When these things begin to happen, draw near to Me. As always, My heart is for the lost now. Reach for their hands and draw them under My wing. They will be looking for safety and answers. So many people predict many things now. Some of these things will come to pass. Many are talking about worldly calamities. These things that are coming can not be imagined by the human mind. Will the people start to listen when they see two suns, when the sky is darkened for three days, when the rivers dry up and it rains blood red, when the rocks flow with water, when the air is thick with smoke, when the earth shakes underneath them and swallows up their homes? Many will come to Me but many will be deceived. My people hear My voice and will recognize Me. It is their job to share Me with the lost. Your redemption was bought and paid for by the One and Only Son of Man. He gave His life to redeem My creation. He has a Name that nobody knows. Soon you will learn Our Names. The lost will long for comfort but will find none. They will reach for the comforts of today but they won’t be here tomorrow. All of the money, jewels and gold will mean nothing. All will be worthless. The forces of authority will be taking people from their homes, assigning them to live together in tents. They will have very little water or food and they will be herded like cattle to the slaughter. Broken spirits will cry out. The new ones will take over with authority and the only way to stay alive will be to obey them. They are purely evil but so tantalizing to the weak of mind. My elect needs to warn and fight for the lost to see the truth. Can you not see the signs We’ve already allowed? Are We not speaking to you through these signs? We wish for no one to parish. The sounds get louder and louder, the voices cry louder and louder and the trumpets blow louder and louder, yet My church seems to be ignoring these signs, blinders put on by Satan, an unsuspecting lot. What else can we do to awaken them? Please continue to watch as the plan unfolds. Bring this Word to the people and obey Me. Spread My gospel of grace to as many as you can. Share the redemptive plan so I can have mercy on many. The hearts of many grow cold but many are ripe for the picking. The lost are your job now. The evil that is upon you will shake them to see Me. Others will succumb to the evil that has now been revealed. Always remember that I Am in control. Walk in peace and knowledge that you will be protected. You are not coming home right away. You will be helpers for a time. I will never leave or forsake you. Constantly trust. Evil may reign for a time but the battle is mine. They will be struck down and trampled. They will loose, for this is written. What man made thing, or thing of this earth, can cause such destruction? Fire, wind, rain? Your mind has never seen or can conceive what is coming. No one will be prepared. Your fortresses will crumble and your armor will be useless. By My grace will any humans survive. Warn people of the great deception. The weak will loose their minds to them. They will present themselves as friendly but they are Satan’s creation. They are his. Goodness is not in them no matter what they do or say. All they speak is a lie. They will be filled with such warmth but they are really ice cold. Many will be deceived by this. The weak of mind will go and follow where they lead. My sheep will hear My voice and see through this great deception. My sheep will hear their Shepherd’s voice and see through this lie.
Revelations 22

 

 

Stephen Hanson

THE GREAT SEPARATION

10/10/18

 

Matthew 25:

31 When the Son of man shall come in his glory, and all the holy angels with him, then shall he sit upon the throne of his glory:

32 And before him shall be gathered all nations: and he shall separate them one from another, as a shepherd divideth his sheep from the goats:

33 And he shall set the sheep on his right hand, but the goats on the left. 

 

John 1:5 And the Light shineth in darkness, and the darkness comprehended it not 

 

“Out of the darkness; into the light; that is the only way that my people will survive in the coming days. For the great darkness will cover the entire earth. Entire areas and cities will engulfed in the darkness, and it will be like a thick vapor that spreads its canopy. For you will need to be absorbed in my light–you will have to wear my light as a robe. For it will be so thick at times that you will barely be able to see in front of you. For the prince of the power of the air is busy with his seducing spirits–they will have seeped into all areas of your land. It will be a time of great distress and confusion. For many have loved the darkness more than the light. But my children, you know the light, for you have come to know of its presence and the power that resides within it. I will disperse my light and the truth and the beauty of it, and many will come to know Me in this hour. But I tell you that there will be a great gulf that separates many. For it is time of the great separation. It will become very plain as those who are for Me and those who are against Me. ”

Stephen Hanson

 

 

 

YOKES OF IRON

Posted: 02 Oct 2018 05:01 AM PDT

Jeremiah 28:12-14
12 Then the word of the Lord came unto Jeremiah the prophet, after that Hananiah the prophet had broken the yoke from off the neck of the Prophet Jeremiah, saying,
13 Go and tell Hananiah, saying, Thus saith the Lord; Thou hast broken the yokes of wood; but thou shalt make for them yokes of iron.
14 For thus saith the Lord of hosts, the God of Israel; I have put a yoke of iron upon the neck of all these nations, that they may serve Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon; and they shall serve him: and I have given him the beasts of the field also.
 
Transcript:
My son, many of My children have wooden yokes around their necks. These yokes include lust, lies, pride, and selfishness, but I will make these wooden yolks that are easily broken become iron. The church has on the yokes of iron, the yokes that cannot be broken easily and must be removed only by Me - the yokes of lies and deceptions, the yokes of blindness and deafness to My true prophets, the yokes of pride and offensiveness that lead to hatred! The yokes of iron are now around all who follow the false teachings and twisting of My Word!  Many false shepherds lead untold millions down the wide path to hell! The men will answer for the blood they have shed and many lives they have corrupted!
 
My son, in these closing last days, I said that deception will run rampant, and because the people are lazy and refuse to read My Word, many will perish and go to hell! I do not want to send them there! They have made that choice all by themselves by following the false teachings that tickle their ears! I have raised up mighty men of My Word, yet they are laughed at, mocked, and ridiculed! They are told that hell doesn't exist - why preach about it? They are told that I wink at certain sins - so why preach condemnation? They are told to stop prophesying doom and gloom because, after all, I am blessing this nation and king! I say those false pastors and teachers will burn in hell because they are too prideful to repent!
 
My son, those who seek Me and repent will be saved! All those of My children that wake up and get out of those mega whorehouses will I save! Much is coming upon this world, not just America! America will pay the price for the outright rebellion and sin against Me, against My children, against My babies, and against My Remnant! For coming is the day that the judgment on this land will test the meat of all those who call themselves by My Great Name!!!
 
My son, I want to be clear. The wooden yoke has now been replaced by the iron yoke, and as such, many will be enslaved! Those coming against My true prophets, My true watchmen, My true shepherds will soon learn the truth - THEY WERE WRONG!!! They did not hear My voice, but the voice of a lying, deceiving spirit! They were so sure because the lying spirit will stay with them, deceiving them until they realize they were being deceived! They can say, "I have been in ministry all my life - I cannot be deceived! THAT IS PRIDE!!!
 
My son, I LOVE ALL MY CHILDREN, BUT THEY NEED TO REPENT!!! THEY NEED TO OPEN MY WORD AND FOLLOW IT, NOT SOME PERSON!!! THEY NEED TO SEEK ME WITH ALL THEIR HEART, MIND, AND SOUL!!! I WILL LOVE THEM WHERE THEY ARE, BUT THEY NEED TO REPENT AND TURN FROM SIN!!! I AM COMING SOON - I AM COMING SOON!!! 
Amen.
Messiah Jesus
 
 

 

MESSAGE FROM GOD, 3 DAYS OF DARKNESS, FALLEN ANGELS COMING

Fri May 18, 2017
9:21am

3 Days of Darkness  What to Do, What Will Happen, Fallen Angels will Come Down – Stay INSIDE your Homes

I was spending some time in prayer with the Lord, asking Him to give some insight into the 3 Days of Darkness.

And He said, “First, I want everyone to go into their homes, and shut the door – and lock the doors tight. Cover the blinds. If you have no blinds, hang something to cover them dark. Keep it sealed that way for all the days of the darkness.

Look not outside – do not peek out – for strangers shall inhabit the earth in those days – like it says in Joel and Jude verse 6.

Darkness shall descend and great darkness shall cover the whole earth.  People will shudder – they will wonder what on earth is now going on.  They will think that there’s a problem with the sun – but it will be more than just that.

It will be a thick, thick, thick darkness – just like it was when I gave the tablets of stone to Moses – at the Mount of Sinai – and like it happened before My People, crossed over the Red Sea, and into the Promised Land.

It was like that.

And so, at the end of days, it shall be again.  Great darkness over the entire earth, to resemble the stench of sin on the earth – for then – My Eyes will not look at the earth and see all as per normal.  My Eyes shall see darkness, real, real darkness – and I shall be glad for a moment, that I do not need to see the stench of sin before My Face.

But – I will use this time frame period of the 3 days – as a cleansing to the Nations.

They shall weep, they shall mourn, they will say, ‘surely, there is a God and He is punishing us for our wicked ways, for our sin before Him. Let us repent and bring glory to the Lord.’

And yet, some others will say, ‘this thing will pass, this cloud will lift – and we will go on – go on to doing our wicked thing – more wicked than ever.’

Many will mourn – they will pray, repent, and pray so much so, like never before in their lives – I will convict them of their sins.  Many I will save during those 3 days of the darkness on the earth.

For there will be a great soul harvest during this time frame. My Bride will rejoice – knowing that it’s soon time to cross over into the Promised Land of Heaven – Hallelujah!

Glory to the King – from on High.  He reigns!  Great and victorious is our King, Messiah, The King of Glory.

Do not be afraid, My People – during these days of darkness.  But rather – prepare for it.  Pray, fast, ready My Word – and study it.

The darkness will not be inside of your home – for I am the Light of the World – and I will illuminate your dwelling for you.  Stay close to Me during this time, My Dear Ones.  Purify your heart from sin.  Pray, fast, repent – for the Day of Redemption draws near – comes soon after. Amen. Hallelujah!  Glory to God Forever.

This shall descend on the earth soon. Amen.” 9:33am

 

Verses to show that days of darkness happened before as recorded in the Bible:

Days of darkness before God’s People crossed over to the Promised land

Exodus 10:21-23
The Ninth Plague: Darkness
21 Then the Lord said to Moses, “Stretch out your hand toward heaven, that there may be darkness over the land of Egypt, darkness which may even be felt.” 22 So Moses stretched out his hand toward heaven, and there was thick darkness in all the land of Egypt three days. 23 They did not see one another; nor did anyone rise from his place for three days. But all the children of Israel had light in their dwellings.

Days of darkness when Moses got the tablets of stone, the 10 Commandments from God:

Exodus 20:21 
21 So the people stood afar off, but Moses drew near the thick darkness where God was.

Psalm 97:2
Clouds and darkness surround Him; Righteousness and justice are the foundation of His throne.

Deuteronomy 5:22
22 “These words the Lord spoke to all your assembly, in the mountain from the midst of the fire, the cloud, and the thick darkness, with a loud voice; and He added no more. And He wrote them on two tablets of stone and gave them to me.
Deuteronomy 5 (10 Commandments given to Moses during darkness)

Exodus 24:12
On the Mountain with God
9 Then Moses went up, also Aaron, Nadab, and Abihu, and seventy of the elders of Israel,
10 and they saw the God of Israel. And there was under His feet as it were a paved work of sapphire stone, and it was like the very heavens in its clarity.
11 But on the nobles of the children of Israel He did not lay His hand. So they saw God, and they ate and drank.
12 Then the Lord said to Moses, “Come up to Me on the mountain and be there; and I will give you tablets of stone, and the law and commandments which I have written, that you may teach them.”
13 So Moses arose with his assistant Joshua, and Moses went up to the mountain of God.
14 And he said to the elders, “Wait here for us until we come back to you. Indeed, Aaron and Hur are with you. If any man has a difficulty, let him go to them.”
15 Then Moses went up into the mountain, and a cloud covered the mountain.
16 Now the glory of the Lord rested on Mount Sinai, and the cloud covered it six days. And on the seventh day He called to Moses out of the midst of the cloud. 17 The sight of the glory of the Lord was like a consuming fire on the top of the mountain in the eyes of the children of Israel. 18 So Moses went into the midst of the cloud and went up into the mountain. And Moses was on the mountain forty days and forty nights.
(so could we get 6 days darkness in total? is the Lord only revealing to us now about 3 days of darkness? will He be revealing to us soon about 6 days if that’s what we’ll get in total? …something to pray about)…

Exodus 19:9
16 Then it came to pass on the third day, in the morning, that there were thunderings and lightnings, and a thick cloud on the mountain; and the sound of the trumpet was very loud, so that all the people who were in the camp trembled.
17 And Moses brought the people out of the camp to meet with God, and they stood at the foot of the mountain. 
18 Now Mount Sinai was completely in smoke, because the Lord descended upon it in fire. Its smoke ascended like the smoke of a furnace, and the whole mountain quaked greatly. 
19 And when the blast of the trumpet sounded long and became louder and louder, Moses spoke, and God answered him by voice.
20 Then the Lord came down upon Mount Sinai, on the top of the mountain. And the Lord called Moses to the top of the mountain, and Moses went up.
21 And the Lord said to Moses, “Go down and warn the people, lest they break through to gaze at the Lord, and many of them perish.
22 Also let the priests who come near the Lord consecrate themselves, lest the Lord break out against them.”
23 But Moses said to the Lord, “The people cannot come up to Mount Sinai; for You warned us, saying, ‘Set bounds around the mountain and consecrate it.’”
24 Then the Lord said to him, “Away! Get down and then come up, you and Aaron with you. But do not let the priests and the people break through to come up to the Lord, lest He break out against them.”
25 So Moses went down to the people and spoke to them.

Exodus 31:18
18 And when He had made an end of speaking with him on Mount Sinai, He gave Moses two tablets of the Testimony, tablets of stone, written with the finger of God.

The Ark brought into the Temple (The Lord dwelling in the dark cloud)

1 Kings 8:10-13
10 And it came to pass, when the priests came out of the holy place, that the cloud filled the house of the Lord,
11 so that the priests could not continue ministering because of the cloud; for the glory of the Lord filled the house of the Lord.
12 Then Solomon spoke: “The Lord said He would dwell in the dark cloud.

13 I have surely built You an exalted house, And a place for You to dwell in forever.”

Verses to show that fallen angels will come down in the End Times, which we are living in now:

Jude 1:6
And the angels who did not keep their proper domain, but left their own abode, He has reserved in everlasting chains under darkness for the judgement of the great day;

Joel 2:1-2
The Day of the Lord
Blow the trumpet in Zion,
And sound an alarm in My holy mountain!
Let all the inhabitants of the land tremble;
For the day of the Lord is coming,
For it is at hand:
A day of darkness and gloominess,
A day of clouds and thick darkness,
Like the morning clouds spread over the mountains.
A people come, great and strong,
The like of whom has never been;
Nor will there ever be any such after them,
Even for many successive generations.

A fire devours before them,
And behind them a flame burns;
The land is like the Garden of Eden before them,

And behind them a desolate wilderness;
Surely nothing shall escape them.
Their appearance is like the appearance of horses;
And like swift steeds, so they run.
5 With a noise like chariots
Over mountaintops they leap,
Like the noise of a flaming fire that devours the stubble,
Like a strong people set in battle array.

Before them the people writhe in pain;
All faces are drained of color.
7 They run like mighty men,
They climb the wall like men of war;
Every one marches in formation,
And they do not break ranks.
8 They do not push one another;
Every one marches in his own column.
Though they lunge between the weapons,
They are not cut down.
9 They run to and fro in the city,
They run on the wall;
They climb into the houses,
They enter at the windows like a thief.

10 The earth quakes before them,
The heavens tremble;
The sun and moon grow dark,
And the stars diminish their brightness.
11 
The Lord gives voice before His army,

For His camp is very great;
For strong is the One who executes His word.
For the day of the Lord is great and very terrible;
Who can endure it?

Joel 3:15-17
The sun and moon will grow dark,

And the stars will diminish their brightness.
16 The Lord also will roar from Zion,
And utter His voice from Jerusalem;
The heavens and earth will shake;
But the Lord will be a shelter for His people,
And the strength of the children of Israel.

17 “So you shall know that I am the Lord your God,
Dwelling in Zion My holy mountain.
Then Jerusalem shall be holy,
And no aliens shall ever pass through her again.”

Isaiah 13:4-6
The noise of a multitude in the mountains,
Like that of many people!
A tumultuous noise of the kingdoms of nations gathered together!

The Lord of hosts musters
The army for battle.
5 They come from a far country,
From the end of heaven—

The Lord and His weapons of indignation,
To destroy the whole land.

Isaiah 13:9-13
Behold, the day of the Lord comes,

Cruel, with both wrath and fierce anger,
To lay the land desolate;
And He will destroy its sinners from it.
10 For the stars of heaven and their constellations
Will not give their light;
The sun will be darkened in its going forth,
And the moon will not cause its light to shine.

11 “I will punish the world for its evil,
And the wicked for their iniquity;
I will halt the arrogance of the proud,

And will lay low the haughtiness of the terrible.
12 I will make a mortal more rare than fine gold,
A man more than the golden wedge of Ophir.
13 Therefore I will shake the heavens,
And the earth will move out of her place,
In the wrath of the Lord of hosts

And in the day of His fierce anger.

Luke 12:39-40
But know this, that if the master of the house had known what hour the thief would come, he would have watched and not allowed his house to be broken into. 40 Therefore you also be ready, for the Son of Man is coming at an hour you do not expect.”

Mark 13:29-30
So you also, when you see these things happening, know that it is near—at the doors! 30 Assuredly, I say to you, this generation will by no means pass away till all these things take place.31 Heaven and earth will pass away, but My words will by no means pass away.

Joel 2:12-16
A Call to Repentance
“Now, therefore,” says the Lord,

“Turn to Me with all your heart,
With fasting, with weeping, and with mourning.”
13 So rend your heart, and not your garments;
Return to the Lord your God,
For He is gracious and merciful,

Slow to anger, and of great kindness;
And He relents from doing harm.
14 Who knows if He will turn and relent,
And leave a blessing behind Him—
A grain offering and a drink offering
For the Lord your God?
15 Blow the trumpet in Zion,
Consecrate a fast,
Call a sacred assembly;
16 Gather the people,
Sanctify the congregation,
Assemble the elders,
Gather the children and nursing babes;
Let the bridegroom go out from his chamber,
And the bride from her dressing room.

Joel 2:32
And it shall come to pass

That whoever calls on the name of the Lord
Shall be saved.
For in Mount Zion and in Jerusalem there shall be deliverance,

As the Lord has said,
Among the remnant whom the Lord calls.

Matthew 24: 29-31
The Coming of the Son of Man
“Immediately after the tribulation of those days the sun will be darkened, and the moon will not give its light; the stars will fall from heaven, and the powers of the heavens will be shaken. 30 Then the sign of the Son of Man will appear in heaven, and then all the tribes of the earth will mourn, and they will see the Son of Man coming on the clouds of heaven with power and great glory. 31 And He will send His angels with a great sound of a trumpet, and they will gather together His elect from the four winds, from one end of heaven to the other.

Daniel 12:1-2
Prophecy of the End Time
“At that time Michael shall stand up,

The great prince who stands watch over the sons of your people;
And there shall be a time of trouble,
Such as never was since there was a nation,
Even to that time.
And at that time your people shall be delivered,
Every one who is found written in the book.
2 And many of those who sleep in the dust of the earth shall awake,
Some to everlasting life,
Some to shame and everlasting contempt.

If you are interested to give your heart to the Lord Jesus Christ, and to ask Him to forgive you for your sins and to ask Him to be your Saviour and assign your eternal soul to Him; then you can pray a prayer something like this:

Adults or anyone can pray:
Dear Jesus Christ, the Son of God: I have much sin in my life and I need You as my Saviour. I am a sinner in need of forgiveness. I am sorry that I have gone against Your Word for my life. Please forgive me for all of my sins. I’m so sorry for my sins against You. I believe You shed Your blood, died on the Cross, rose from the dead on the 3rd day, to pay the full penalty of my sins and to give me eternal life in Heaven with You. Help me to live for You now and to become all You want me to be, in You. Help me to have You at the center of my life from now on and to develop a close and personal relationship with You. I turn from my sinful and selfish lifestyle and strive to please You now and have You at the center of my life. I receive Your Holy Spirit into my heart and life right now as a seal that I belong to You now. I pray I’m counted worthy to be included in the Rapture to start my eternity with You then. Help me to share your love with others, so they too can come to know You as their Saviour. Thank you for everything You’ve done for me. In Jesus name I pray. Amen.

Children and Teens can pray:
Dear Jesus Christ, The Son of God: I know I do wrong things. Please forgive me for my sins. I am sorry for the sins – for doing wrong things against Your Word. I believe You shed Your blood, died for me on the Cross, rose from the dead on the 3rd day, and paid for my sins in full. Please come into my heart today so that I can go to Heaven when You call for me to go, to live my eternal life with You. I love You Jesus. Thank you for dying for me and for washing my soul clean with Your Blood. I receive Your Holy Spirit into my heart today, as a seal that I belong to You now. I pray I’m counted worthy to escape God’s wrath and to go to Heaven in the Rapture to be with You forever. Thank you for everything You’ve done for me. In Jesus name I pray. Amen.

Younger children can pray:
Dear Jesus Christ, The Son of God: I believe You are the truth. I believe You died for me, rose from the dead on the 3rd day, so that I can go to Heaven to live with You forever. Thank you for washing me clean with Your Blood and saving me. I believe You love me and that You are God. I receive You today into my heart. Please take me to Heaven with You in the Rapture.
In Jesus name I pray. Amen.

Jesus will write your name down in the Book of Life if you genuinely believed what you just prayed to Him. All the angels in Heaven rejoice over you coming to Jesus now for salvation of your soul. Stay on the straight and narrow path until your last breath.

John 3:16-18 
For God so loved the world that He gave His only begotten Son, that whosoever believes in Him should not perish but have everlasting life. For God did not send His Son into the world to condemn the world, but that the world through Him might be saved. He who believes in Him is not condemned; but he who does not believe is condemned already, because he has not believed in the name of the only begotten Son of God.

Romans 3:23 
For all have sinned and fall short of the glory of God.

Romans 6:23 
For the wages of sin is death, but the gift of God is eternal life in Christ Jesus our Lord.

Romans 10:13
For “whoever calls on the name of the Lord shall be saved.”

1 Corinthians 15:1-4
The Risen Christ, Faith’s Reality
Moreover, brethren, I declare to you the gospel which I preached to you, which also you received and in which you stand, 2 by which also you are saved, if you hold fast that word which I preached to you—unless you believed in vain. 3 For I delivered to you first of all that which I also received: that Christ died for our sins according to the Scriptures, 4 and that He was buried, and that He rose again the third day according to the Scriptures.

Source:  https://ichoosemyeternitynow.wordpress.com/2017/12/04/3/

 

Signs leading up to the 3 Days of Darkness - Ready for 6th seal

Klik hier om een tekst te typen.

Daughter you must speak this now . TIME is coming to an end. My words and my truth must reach all people. Many remain asleep. Many will perish.They see with their eyes yet they remain blind. They hear with their ears yet they are deaf. Stand on the ROOFTOP and PROCLAIM MY RETURN!! MY RETURN FOR YOU IS AT HAND !!. When you see mother, father, husband and wife betray their own .flesh and cause them to be put to death before your eyes.... When you see families arrested and taken to camps ... when you see your cities burning one by one without explanation .. when you see strangers taking control of your nation and your government. ... when many just sit back and watch evil ruling and do nothing. my time is here. It has already begun .When you see these things happening I AM COMING FOR MY CALLED AND CHOSEN. BE READY!

 

12 November 2017

I never knew about this but God (YHWH) showed me in a dream just before I woke up the written words "Jews S.A."

This is what I found so far: 

https://www.britannica.com/topic/SA-Nazi-organization

 

Does anybody know what this is all about?

SA

NAZI ORGANIZATION
 
Alternative Titles: Braunhemden, Brownshirts, Storm Troopers, Sturmabteilung, Sturmtruppen
SA troops locking hands to prevent Jews from entering the University of Vienna.
© National Archives/United States Holocaust Memorial Museum
 
SA, abbreviation of Sturmabteilung (German: “Assault Division”), byname Storm Troopers or Brownshirts, German Sturmtruppen or Braunhemden, in the German Nazi Party, a paramilitary organization whose methods of violent intimidation played a key role in Adolf Hitler’s rise to power.
 
The SA was founded in Munich by Hitler in 1921 out of various roughneck elements that had attached themselves to the fledgling Nazi movement. It drew its early membership largely from the Freikorps(Free Corps), armed freebooter groups, made up largely of ex-soldiers, that battled leftists in the streets in the early days of the Weimar Republic. Outfitted in brown uniforms after the fashion of Benito Mussolini’s Fascist Blackshirts in Italy, the SA men protected party meetings, marched in Nazi rallies, and physically assaulted political opponents. Temporarily in disarray after the failure of Hitler’s Munich Putsch in 1923, the SA was reorganized in 1925 and soon resumed its violent ways, intimidating voters in national and local elections. From January 1931 it was headed by Ernst Röhm, who harboured radical anticapitalist notions and dreamed of building the SA into Germany’s main military force. Under Röhm SA membership, swelled from the ranks of the Great Depression’s unemployed, grew to 400,000 by 1932 and to perhaps 2,000,000—20 times the size of the regular army—by the time that Hitler came to power in 1933.
 

During the early days of the Nazi regime, the SA carried out unchecked street violence against Jews and Nazi opponents. But it was eyed with suspicion by the regular army and by the wealthy industrialists, two groups whose support Hitler was trying to secure. Against Hitler’s expressed wishes, Röhm continued to press for a “second Nazi revolution” of a socialist character, and he hoped to merge the regular army with the SA under his own leadership. On June 30, 1934, the Night of the Long Knives (die Nacht der langen Messer), Hitler, using SS forces, carried out a “Blood Purge” of the SA leadership. Röhm and dozens of SA leaders were summarily executed. Thereafter the SA, reduced in strength, continued to exist but ceased to play a major political role in Nazi affairs. From 1939 it was in charge of training all able-bodied men for Home Guard units.

 

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sturmabteilung

https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sturmabteilung

 

‘Jew-S-A!’ chant is latest reminder of white supremacist support for Trump

Man shouts ‘Jew-S-A’ at journalists covering Trump rally in Phoenix

 

PHOENIX – Donald Trump routinely bashes the news media at his rallies, labeling them “dishonest” people who are part of the “rigged” system that he claims is working against him. The crowd usually piles on with boos.

At a Saturday afternoon rally here, one man confronted the media on his own – with an anti-Semitic chant and a hand gesture that some on social media suggested resembled hate symbols.

“You’re going down! You’re the enemy!” the man yelled. He pointed at reporters, producers and photographers who were in their designated media pen at the back of the venue.

As the rest of the crowd broke into a chant of “USA! USA!” the man chanted, “Jew-S-A!” He made a hand gesture that some on social media said resembled hate symbols flagged by the Anti-Defamation League.

Asserting that Jews control the media is a common theme among white supremacists.

Some reporters captured the man’s actions on video:

 

In an email, Trump spokeswoman Hope Hicks wrote that campaign “strongly condemns this kind of rhetoric and behavior. It is not acceptable at our rallies or elsewhere.”

Hicks continued: “Hopefully you will also write about the thousands of attendees who came to hear Mr. Trump’s vision for our country, the overwhelming majority of whom are hard-working Americans, enthusiastic about the promise of a better future with Mr. Trump as President.”

The identity of the man, who wore a “Hillary for Prison” t-shirt, was not immediately clear.

Jonathan Greenblatt, the director and CEO of the Anti-Defamation League, has raised concerns about the rise of anti-Semitic language among Trump supporters. In a recent interview, he also expressed fears that Trump’s speeches have at times carried tropes and stereotypes that have been historically used to scapegoat Jewish people, such as “claims that a global banking elite are trying to destroy U.S. sovereignty.” 

“I’m not saying that the candidate is intentionally doing this, but whether it’s the speechwriters or his supporters, we’re seeing tropes and stereotypes about Jews dominating the global banking system,” Greenblatt said.

Trump’s social media posts have also drawn worries. Earlier this year, his defense of the use of a six-pointed star, which resembled the Star of David, over a pile of cash in a Twitter attack against Hillary Clinton alarmed many Jewish Americans.

 

(Fake Jews who are destroying the whole EARTH)

Revelation 2:
9. I know thy works, and tribulation, and poverty, (but thou art rich) and I know the blasphemy of them which say they are Jews, and are not, but are the synagogue of Satan.

 

Source: https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/post-politics/wp/2016/10/30/man-shouts-jew-s-a-at-journalists-covering-trump-rally-in-phoenix/?utm_term=.f12db5f52747

 

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sturmabteilung 

 

My prophecy and information given by YHWH to me.

I woke up on Sabbath 4th of Cheshvan, 5777
Saturday november 5th 2016

I woke up with YHWH's WORD
I heard the word 'NATO"and I saw a black MOURNING BRACELET

I think lots of people are going to DIE SOON and NATO is the one who is causing it.


On Sabbath 20th of Iyyar, 5775
35th day of the Omer (Saturday may 9th 2015)
I woke up with YHWH's WORD.

 

Revelation 12:
17 And the dragon was wroth with the woman (church), and went to make war with the remnant of her seed,
which keep the commandments of God, and have the testimony of Jesus Christ.

This WORD corresponds with the scriptures.

 

Revelation 14:
12 Here is the patience of the saints: here are they that keep the commandments of God, and the faith of Jesus.

 

On Sunday 23 october 2016
YHWH gave me an answer to my question. What do you mean with WAR in Revelation 12:17?
I saw Dumitru Duduman explaining about Revelation 18 and his dreams and visions "THE BLACK ARMY"

("I am Lucifer!" he exclaimed.  "I am the king of this world!  I have come to make war against the Christians!")

Prophecy 2015 - 2017 NATO Barack Obama GOG Dumitru Duduman Natan Jewish boy Clinical Death

 

Information for the video:

Prophecy 2015 - 2017 NATO Barack Obama GOG Dumitru Duduman Natan Jewish boy Clinical Death

I sometimes get dreams-visions and Words from YHWH.
This is what I could figure out from it for the future that has too come.
It is not only from me, but also from others as well.

Given Name GEULA. USAGE: Hebrew. OTHER SCRIPTS: גְּאֻלָה (Hebrew) Means "redemption" in Hebrew.

 

Mitzvot:
In its secondary meaning, Hebrew mitzvah, as with English "commandment", refers to a moral deed performed within a religious duty. As such, the term mitzvah has also come to express an individual act of human kindness in keeping with the law. ... The tertiary meaning of mitzvah also refers to the fulfillment of a mitzvah.

 

Goy:
ɡɔɪ/Verzenden
noun informal derogatory
plural noun: goyim
a Jewish name for a non-Jew.

Har HaZeitim (Mount of Olives)

 

Teshuvah:
Repentance (Hebrew: תשובה‎‎, literally "return", pronounced "tshuva" or "teshuva") is one element of atoning for sin in Judaism. A Jewish penitent is traditionally known as a baal teshuva (lit.)

 

secular:
adjective
1.
not connected with religious or spiritual matters.
"secular buildings"
synonyms: non-religious, lay, non-church, temporal, worldly, earthly, profane; More
2.
CHRISTIAN CHURCH
(of clergy) not subject to or bound by religious rule; not belonging to or living in a monastic or other order.


noun
1.
a secular priest.

hakadosh-baruch-hu. Proper noun. (Judaism)
the Holy One, blessed be He (euphemism for God)

 

tsaddik
noun JUDAISM
plural noun: tzaddikim
a Hasidic spiritual leader or guide. (Holy Spirit)

 

Beit HaMikdash: (In rabbinical literature the temple)
"The Sanctified House", and only the Temple in Jerusalem is referred to by this name.
The term hekhal "hall" or main building is often translated "temple".

rasha: wicked, criminal.
The Kotel: Western Wall

 

seventh tractate:
Ma'aserot (Hebrew: מַעֲשְׂרוֹת‎‎, lit. "Tithes") is the seventh tractate (7TH YEAR) of Seder Zeraim ("Order of Seeds") of the Mishnah, Tosefta, and the Jerusalem Talmud. The tithing was given to Levites as 10% of an individual's crop.

 

Beit Knesset: synagogue

 

yeshiva:
an Orthodox Jewish college or seminary.
(Natan just told you why he cannot go, it is a religious cult who do not believe in the Messiah Yahushua. Nathan understands that he has to study Torah, to observe the commandments, that's the main thing - everything else - is insignificant!)

Revelation 18

1 And after these things I saw another angel come down from heaven, having great power; and the earth was lightened with his glory.
2 And he cried mightily with a strong voice, saying, Babylon the great is fallen, is fallen, and is become the habitation of devils, and the hold of every foul spirit, and a cage of every unclean and hateful bird.
3 For all nations have drunk of the wine of the wrath of her fornication, and the kings of the earth have committed fornication with her, and the merchants of the earth are waxed rich through the abundance of her delicacies.
4 And I heard another voice from heaven, saying, Come out of her, my people, that ye be not partakers of her sins, and that ye receive not of her plagues.
5 For her sins have reached unto heaven, and God hath remembered her iniquities.
6 Reward her even (EUEN) as she rewarded you, and double unto her double according to her works: in the cup which she hath filled fill to her double. (Jeremiah 25: 28)
7 How much she hath glorified herself, and lived deliciously, so much torment and sorrow give her: for she saith in her heart, I sit a queen, and am no widow, and shall see no sorrow.
8 Therefore shall her plagues come in one day, death, and mourning, and famine; and she shall be utterly burned with fire: for strong is the Lord God who judgeth her.
9 And the kings of the earth, who have committed fornication and lived deliciously with her, shall bewail her, and lament for her, when they shall see the smoke of her burning,
10 Standing afar off for the fear of her torment, saying, Alas, alas, that great city Babylon, that mighty city! for in one hour is thy judgment come.
11 And the merchants of the earth shall weep and mourn over her; for no man buyeth their merchandise any more:
12 The merchandise of gold, and silver, and precious stones, and of pearls, and fine linen, and purple, and silk, and scarlet, and all thyine wood, and all manner vessels of ivory, and all manner vessels of most precious wood, and of brass, and iron, and marble,
13 And cinnamon, and odours, and ointments, and frankincense, and wine, and oil, and fine flour, and wheat, and beasts, and sheep, and horses, and chariots, and slaves, and souls of men.
14 And the fruits that thy soul lusted after are departed from thee, and all things which were dainty and goodly are departed from thee, and thou shalt find them no more at all.
15 The merchants of these things, which were made rich by her, shall stand afar off for the fear of her torment, weeping and wailing,
16 And saying, Alas, alas, that great city, that was clothed in fine linen, and purple, and scarlet, and decked with gold, and precious stones, and pearls!
17 For in one hour so great riches is come to nought. And every shipmaster, and all the company in ships, and sailors, and as many as trade by sea, stood afar off,
18 And cried when they saw the smoke of her burning, saying, What city is like unto this great city!
19 And they cast dust on their heads, and cried, weeping and wailing, saying, Alas, alas, that great city, wherein were made rich all that had ships in the sea by reason of her costliness! for in one hour is she made desolate.
20 Rejoice over her, thou heaven, and ye holy apostles and prophets; for God hath avenged you on her.
21 And a mighty angel took up a stone like a great millstone, and cast it into the sea, saying, Thus with violence shall that great city Babylon be thrown down, and shall be found no more at all.
22 And the voice of harpers, and musicians, and of pipers, and trumpeters, shall be heard no more at all in thee; and no craftsman, of whatsoever craft he be, shall be found any more in thee; and the sound of a millstone shall be heard no more at all in thee;
23 And the light of a candle shall shine no more at all in thee; and the voice of the bridegroom and of the bride shall be heard no more at all in thee: for thy merchants were the great men of the earth; for by thy sorceries were all nations deceived.
24 And in her was found the blood of prophets, and of saints, and of all that were slain upon the earth.

 

At 26:40 minutes in: Inpower Episode 2 Revelation 18

 

This sytem of COMMERCE is called BABYLON.

 

THE BLACK ARMY

 

May 7th, 1993

One night, while in Oregon, I dreamed the sky was getting dark.  Then suddenly it turned pitch black!  It was as if the whole world had gone dark at that moment!   All the people were in a frenzy!  They became disoriented, and some were even screaming. After some time, we heard the sound of an army approaching.  Soon, we saw them coming out of the black mist.  All were dressed in black, except one.  That one seemed to be their leader.  He was dressed in a red robe with a thick black belt over his waist.  On his head, he had a sign.  As I looked, I saw that in his hand he held the same kind of sharp spear as everyone else in his army.

"I am Lucifer!" he exclaimed.  "I am the king of this world!  I have come to make war against the Christians!"

It looked as though all the Christians were huddled together in one big group.  Some began to cry when they heard this.  Others began to tremble, while some just stood without saying anything.  Lucifer continued to speak.  "All of those that want to fight against my army and think they can be victorious; go to the right.  Those that fear me; go to the left."

Only about a quarter of the group stepped to the right.  All the others went to the left.   Then Lucifer ordered his army, "Destroy those on the right!"

The army began to advance and quickly surrounded the Christians on the right.  As they began to close in on us, a powerful light appeared and encircled us.  Then, an angel of the Lord spoke.  "Take out your swords and fight.  Defend yourselves and be victorious over the enemy."

"What swords?" A man in the group asked.

"The Word of the Lord is your sword," the angel answered.  When we understood what the angel meant, we began to quote verses from the Bible.  Then suddenly, as if we were one voice, we began to sing a song.  Our voices thundered so loudly, that the Dark army began to retreat in fear.  They did not have the courage to come against us anymore.

Lucifer, then filled with rage, turned to those on the left.  "You, who all of your life have been trying to please two masters, because you could not stand against me; I have the power to destroy you."

He then ordered his army to attack.  It was a total massacre.  The ones on the left could not defend themselves.  One by one they all fell.  This killing seemed to go on for a long time.  After a while we could actually smell the stench of the dead.

"Why could they not be protected also?" someone asked.

The angel answered: "Because all their life they have been lukewarm.  Because of their hypocrisy, the true church has been blasphemed.  They have brought disrespect to the word of God.  They were not clean."

As we continued to look, we saw the sun coming over the horizon.  The black clouds began to break up.  Then they disappeared.  Only one was left - on which Lucifer and his army stood.   Lucifer looked at me shaking his fists and said, "I will destroy you even if I have to throw my spear at you from here!"  Then that cloud disappeared too.

As I looked around I began to see faces that I recognized among our group.  I saw a pastor from Bellflower - another from Indiana - one from Michigan - as well as many of my American friends.  This strengthened me greatly.  Then I awoke.  The first thought that came to my mind as I awoke was that this had been the last fight of the devil against the church.  If we remain faithful, we will be victorious.

Excepted from: 
Dreams and Visions From God
Copyright © 1994, 1996, 2000

 

Source: https://www.handofhelp.com/vision_22.php

InPower Episode #1: A Mass Action of Liability (2017)

Get Episode 2 free: https://inpowermovement.com

The InPower Docu-Series illustrates a powerful new method to restore social justice and accountability.

Episode #1 focuses on solving the ‘smart’ meter problem: how we can prevent and reverse the installation of this dangerous technology, through holding corporate executives and government actors financially accountable — for the first time ever. And in so doing, we can restore safety in our homes, and bring balance to our world.

 

At 26:40 minutes in: Inpower Episode 2 (Revelation 18)

At 3:23 minutes (Revelation 18)
 
Both say the same thing it is a CONFIRMATION.
Second one is my video PLEASE LISTEN TO THAT VIDEO it is VERY IMPORTANT.

 

The Structure:(16 minutes)

Capelle aan den IJssel

Zuid Holland

THE STATE OF THE NETHERLANDS (Corporation - Courts - Laws - Commerce - Contracts - Business)

 

This system here above is subject to Contract LAW.

That is why they have to get you in CONTRACT because it is out of their jurisdiction.

 

Koninkrijk der Nederlanden

Het Koninkrijk der Nederlanden is een soevereine staat samengesteld uit vier landen:

Nederland, Aruba, Curaçao en Sint Maarten.

Law Merchant

Common Law

Spiritual Jurisdicton (Revelation 18)

 

Round:

  1. Notice of Liability (14 days)
  2. Notice of Fault (14 days)
  3. Notice Default (Grace)
  4. 1st True Bill  (Billing and Enforcement, No more chances)
  5. 2nd True Bill
  6. 3rd True Bill
  7. 1st Notice To Debtor
  8. 2nd Notice To Debtor
  9. 3rd Notice To Debtor
  10. Enforcement

 

  1. Offer:  Example: A notice or website posting about a "meter upgrade".
  2. Meeting of the minds: Must include full disclosure of relevant facts and terms.
  3. Unconditional acceptance: Conditions (of counter-offer) must be met or removed. Consent can be gained tacitly (Silence is agreement)
  4. Money exchange or persormance ratifies the contract. "performance" = the action of doing something based on the contract.

Example: The condition "if you put a meter on my house, I will charge you € 10.000 (X) per day", is deemed accepted if a meter is installed (or not removed).

 

Jeremiah 25:
28 And it shall be, if they refuse to take the cup at thine hand to drink, then shalt thou say unto them, Thus saith the LORD of hosts; Ye shall certainly drink. (Revelation 18:6)

 

ANTICHRIST

Crowning

Queen Beatrix 1980

Willem Alexander 2013

Beëdiging en inhuldiging Koningin Beatrix in de Nieuwe Kerk (1980)

They are under CONTRACT

Source: https://youtu.be/tzAygpeoyks

Beëdiging en inhuldiging van Koning Willem-Alexander

in de Nieuwe Kerk (2013)

Source: https://youtu.be/GwvjM6kF8VM

No Bible but the "So above and So below" sign

Koning Willem-Alexander legt tijdens zijn inhuldiging op 30 april in de Nieuwe Kerk in Amsterdam de eed af aan het volk. Hieronder de tekst die hij zal uitspreken.
 

"Ik zweer aan de volkeren van het Koninkrijk dat Ik het Statuut voor het Koninkrijk en de Grondwet steeds zal onderhouden en handhaven.

Ik zweer dat Ik de onafhankelijkheid en het grondgebied van het Koninkrijk met al Mijn vermogen zal verdedigen en bewaren; dat Ik de vrijheid en de rechten van alle Nederlanders en alle ingezetenen zal beschermen, en tot instandhouding en bevordering van de welvaart alle middelen zal aanwenden welke de wetten Mij ter beschikking stellen, zoals een goed en getrouw Koning schuldig is te doen.

Zo waarlijk helpe Mij God almachtig."

Source: https://www.nu.nl/troonswisseling/3409550/eed-van-koning-willem-alexander.html

Washington Monument

 

Statuut voor het Koninkrijk der Nederlanden- Hoofdinhoud

Het Statuut voor het Koninkrijk der Nederlanden regelt de rechtsorde in het Koninkrijk, alsmede in de landsdelen Nederlandse Antillen en Aruba, en in Nederland. De landsdelen behartigen zelfstandig hun eigen belangen en verzorgen op voet van gelijkwaardigheid de gemeenschappelijke belangen. Ook verlenen zij elkaar wederkerig bijstand. Het Statuut regelt verder onder meer de instelling, inrichting, taken en bevoegdheden van de rijksorganen, de vertegenwoordiging van de Nederlandse Antillen en Aruba in de rijksregering en de wijze van tot stand brengen van rijkswetten.

 

De Grondwet voor het Koninkrijk der Nederlanden beschermt de grondrechten van burgers en regelt de staatsinrichting van Nederland. Zo staat erin dat iedereen in Nederland recht heeft op een gelijke behandeling. Ook beschrijft hij bijvoorbeeld hoe wetten tot stand komen. De Grondwet is ondergeschikt aan het Statuut voor het Koninkrijk der Nederlanden. Het Statuut regelt de staatkundige relatie tussen Nederland, Aruba, Curaçao en Sint Maarten.

 

Het Statuut voor het Koninkrijk der Nederlanden is een document met wetskracht dat de opmaak van het Koninkrijk der Nederlanden regelt, alsmede de verhoudingen tussen de landen binnen het Koninkrijk.

Wijziging gebeurt bij Rijkswet; anders dan bij wijziging van de Grondwet zijn er niet een eerste en tweede lezing. Wel moet het door de Staten-Generaal aangenomen voorstel van Rijkswet door de overzeese landen bij landsverordening worden aanvaard, voordat de Koning de Rijkswet kan bekrachtigen. De goedkeuring van zo'n aanvaardingslandsverordening geschiedt in twee lezingen, waarbij de tweede lezing achterwege blijft als het in de eerste lezing met een tweederdemeerderheid wordt goedgekeurd.

De laatste wijziging van het Statuut werd van kracht op 17 november 2017, in het kader van de staatkundige hervormingen binnen het Koninkrijk der Nederlanden.

Source: https://www.denederlandsegrondwet.nl/9353000/1/j9vvihlf299q0sr/vi32nm5er9uj

 

Statuten

Kennis  Artikelen Ondernemingsrecht

Elke organisatie heeft interne regels. Bij rechtspersonen zijn die regels in eerste instantie opgenomen in de statuten (en verder vaak nog in bijvoorbeeld een personeelshandboek of huisreglement).

In dit artikel bekijken we wat statuten precies zijn, welke algemene verplichtingen eruit volgen en wat statuten voor elke individuele rechtsvorm betekenen.

Het is belangrijk om te beseffen dat dit artikel niet volledig is: er zijn dermate veel mogelijkheden met statuten (en uitzonderingen daarop), dat daar een boek over geschreven zou kunnen worden. Heeft u een specifiek probleem met betrekking tot de statuten, dan is het aan te bevelen om contact op te nemen met een jurist voor advies op maat.

Algemeen: Statuten

De statuten van een rechtspersoon worden reeds bij het oprichten van de rechtspersoon gemaakt. Ze worden op dat moment ook bij de Kamer van Koophandel neergelegd. Eventuele wijzigingen (indien mogelijk), moeten ook bij de KvK worden ingediend, omdat er anders geen beroep tegenover derden op mogelijk is.

De regels in de statuten gelden in beginsel altijd in de onderlinge verhoudingen binnen de rechtspersoon, tenzij dat naar redelijkheid en billijkheid niet aanvaardbaar zou zijn in een bepaalde situatie. Een besluit van een orgaan van de rechtspersoon (bijvoorbeeld het bestuur) dat in strijd is met de statuten is nietig (ongeldig).

De statuten kunnen tevens regels bevatten voor de ontbinding van de rechtspersoon, maar kunnen ook op zichzelf reden voor ontbinding zijn, bijvoorbeeld indien ze in strijd zijn met de wet.

Statuten bij de bv

Waarschijnlijk worden verreweg de meeste statuten gebruikt in bv‘s. Bij een bv moeten de statuten in de akte van oprichting worden opgenomen. De statuten moeten verplicht bevatten:

  • Naam van de bv (inclusief toevoeging ‘B.V.’ of ‘Besloten Vennootschap met beperkte aansprakelijkheid’);
  • Zetel (moet in Nederland liggen);
  • Doel van de vennootschap (bijvoorbeeld ‘het uitoefenen van het juweliersbedrijf’);
  • Het nominale bedrag van de aandelen en het maatschappelijk kapitaal (indien dat er is).

Verder kunnen de statuten nog veel zaken rondom de aandelen van de bv regelen, waaronder verbintenissen tussen aandeelhouders, eisen aan het aandeelhouderschap en de regels rondom het overdragen van aandelen.

Ook de bevoegdheden van het bestuur en van de algemene vergadering van aandeelhouders kunnen worden uitgebreid of ingeperkt in de statuten.

Statuten voor de vereniging

Verenigingen worden verreweg in de meeste situaties door de statuten geregeerd. Hoewel de wet een aantal dwingendrechtelijke wetsbepalingen heeft, is in een groot deel van die bepalingen (gedeeltelijke) afwijking in de statuten mogelijk.

De statuten van de formele vereniging, moeten in de akte van oprichting worden opgenomen. Een aantal dingen moeten verplicht in de statuten worden opgenomen:

  • Naam van de vereniging (Bijvoorbeeld: ‘Voetbalvereniging Concordia’) en gemeente waar de vereniging ‘haar zetel heeft’ (‘Amsterdam’);
  • Het doel van de vereniging (‘Voetbal spelen op amateurniveau’)
  • De verplichtingen die de leden hebben of de manier waarop die verplichtingen worden vastgesteld;
  • De manier van het bijeenroepen voor de algemene vergadering;
  • De manier waarop het bestuur wordt benoemd of ontslagen;
  • Als de vereniging ontbonden zou worden, waar een eventueel batig saldo naartoe moet of de manier waarop dat tegen die tijd wordt beslist.

De bestuurders van de vereniging moeten ervoor zorg dragen dat de statuten met notariële akte worden ingeschreven in het Handelsregister van de Kamer van Koophandel. Laten zij dat na, dan zijn ze hoofdelijk aansprakelijk.

In de statuten kunnen behalve bovenstaande (verplichte) zaken, ook andere dingen geregeld worden. Denk aan:

  • Het toelaten van een lid tot de vereniging (wordt er niets bepaald, dan beslist het bestuur, al kan de algemene vergadering een negatieve beslissing terugdraaien);
  • Het regelen van wanneer de vereniging het lidmaatschap van een lid kan opzeggen;
  • Het verbinden van verbintenissen aan het lidmaatschap;
  • Het vaststellen van de groep personen die tot bestuurslid kunnen worden benoemd;
  • De mogelijkheid van het uitbrengen van meer stemmen op de algemene vergadering toebedelen aan bepaalde leden.

Statuten voor de stichting

Bij de stichting zijn statuten ook van groot belang. Ook de stichting wordt opgericht bij de notaris en in de notariële akte, moeten de statuten mede worden opgenomen. Er moet minimaal in de statuten staan:

  • De naam van de stichting, waarbij ‘stichting’ in de naam moet zitten (bijvoorbeeld ‘Stichting Red de zangvogel’);
  • Het doel van de stichting (‘Het verhogen van het aantal zangvogels in Nederland’);
  • De manier waarop bestuurders worden benoemd en ontslagen (vaak door het bestuur zelf);
  • De gemeente waar de stichting gezeteld is (‘Amsterdam’);
  • Indien de stichting wordt ontbonden, waar het overschot (geld) naartoe gaat.

Ook bij de stichting zijn de bestuurders, net als bij de vereniging, hoofdelijk aansprakelijk wanneer ze de akte van oprichting inclusief statuten niet in het Handelsregister van de Kamer van Koophandel inschrijven.

De statuten kunnen ook nog andere dingen regelen. Denk daarbij aan:

  • Het toekennen van vertegenwoordigingsbevoegdheid aan één of meer bestuurders (in plaats van aan het gehele bestuur samen) of aan een ander dan een bestuurder;
  • Het mogelijk maken dat de statuten gewijzigd worden. Dit moet dus al direct in de eerste versie van de statuten worden opgenomen. Wordt dat niet gedaan, dan is wijziging niet mogelijk zonder een gang naar de rechter.

Aangezien een stichting geen aandeelhouders heeft (die normaal gesproken over het ontslag van het bestuur gaan) en vaak de bestuurders zelf in hun vervanging voorzien, kunnen er problemen optreden. Daarom heeft de wet (onder meer) geregeld dat de bestuurder die handelt in strijd met de statuten, door de rechtbank kan worden ontslagen.

Statuten voor overige rechtsvormen

Overige rechtsvormen van rechtspersonen kennen ook statuten. Het gaat dan om de nv, de coöperatie en de onderlinge waarborgmaatschappij. Rechtsvormen die geen rechtspersoonlijkheid hebben (zoals de eenmanszaak en vof), hebben géén statuten.

Het gebruik van de coöperatie en de onderlinge waarborgmaatschappij is niet wijdverbreid, reden waarom we de statuten van deze twee rechtsvormen hier niet behandelen. Heeft u toch vragen met betrekking tot de statuten ervan, dan is het aan te bevelen om contact met een jurist op te nemen voor een advies op maat.

De nv is een rechtsvorm die voornamelijk voor grote ondernemingen wordt gebruikt. Het verdient daarbij aanbeveling om per situatie te bekijken welke bevoegdheden en verplichtingen uit de statuten volgen. Over het algemeen kan wel worden gezegd, dat de regels vergelijkbaar zijn met die van de bv.

Statuten – Conclusie

Statuten zijn erg belangrijk binnen een rechtspersoon. Om de juridische situatie in een specifiek geval rondom de werkzaamheid van een rechtspersoon correct te kunnen beoordelen, is het daarom vaak van belang om de statuten door te lezen en deze naast de wet te leggen. Pas met zowel wet als statuten in de hand, kan er een goede inschatting worden gemaakt.

Het vennootschapsrecht is complex, dat is goed te zien aan de wettelijke regelingen en de hoeveelheid uitzonderingen die gemaakt kunnen worden in de statuten. Komt u er zelf niet helemaal uit, dan kan een goede jurist een oplossing voor uw probleem bieden of u simpelweg van een betrouwbaar advies met betrekking tot de statuten voorzien.

Source: http://www.wetrecht.nl/statuten/

 

het statuut

 zelfst.naamw.

Uitspraak:  [sta'tyt]

Verbuigingen:  sta|tuten (meerv.)

 

Synoniem:  

statuut voor het Koninkrijk der Nederlanden 

reglement

(officiële reglement voor het bestuur van het Koninkrijk der Nederlanden als geheel)

 

5 Definities:

  1. 1) Vertaling van de Engelse term bill, zoals in de Bill of Rights. 2) Benaming van een wet, zoals in Nederland het Statuut van het koninkrijk dat de verhouding tussen Ned...
  2. officiële tekst met regels van de organisatie vb: in de statuten staat dat iemand vier jaar lid van het bestuur mag zijn
  3. 1) Bestuursregeling 2) Geheel van voorschriften 3) Grondregel 4) Handvest 5) Hoogste bestuursregeling van een rijk 6) Instelling 7) Reglement 8) Verordening 9) Voorschrif...
  4. [internationaal publiekrecht] reglement van organisaties van internationaal recht. Bijv. het Internationaal Gerechtshof, ingesteld bij het Handvest va…
  5. voorschrift Jaar van herkomst: 1270 (VMNW )

Source: http://www.woorden.org/woord/statuut

 

statuut

zelfstandig naamwoord
uitspraak: sta-tuut

  1. officiële tekst met regels van de organisatie
    vb: in de statuten staat dat iemand vier jaar lid van het bestuur mag zijn

Meer informatie bij:
bestuur dat de het iemand in jaar lid met organisatiestaat tekst van 

Zelfstandig naamwoord: sta-tuut het statuut
de statuten

Source: http://www.muiswerk.nl/mowb/?word=statuut

 

bill of rights
(Ned: Statuut van rechten) 1) Term voor diverse historische documenten, zoals de eerste tien amendementen van de Amerikaanse grondwet, bekrachtigd in 1791. Onder deze amendementen zijn: vrijheid van geloof, meningsuiting, pers en vergadering, en het recht van een beklaagde in een strafzaak om de aanklacht te kennen en getuigen te horen. Met name het First Amendment speelt tot op heden een cruciale rol in zaken aangaande de vrijheid van meningsuiting. 2) Term voor het geheel van verklaringen en verdragen betreffende de mensenrechten, met als kern de Universele verklaring en de VN-verdragen van 1966. Zie ook geschiedenis van de mensenrechten

 

DE GRONDWET

ARTIKEL 142 - AANPASSING GRONDWET AAN STATUUT

De Grondwet kan bij de wet met het Statuut voor het Koninkrijk der Nederlanden in overeenstemming worden gebracht. De artikelen 139, 140 en141 zijn van overeenkomstige toepassing.
 

1 HISTORISCHE ONTWIKKELING EN ACTUELE BETEKENIS

Op 29 december 1954 is het Statuut voor het Koninkrijk der Nederlanden in werking getreden.[1] Sindsdien is niet meer de Grondwet, maar het Statuut de hoogste constitutionele regeling van nationale origine binnen het Koninkrijk.[2]De voorloper van het huidige artikel 142 Grondwet is in 1956 in de Grondwet opgenomen in het licht van de aan artikel 5, tweede lid, van het Statuut ten grondslag liggende rechtsopvatting dat het Statuut voorgaat op de Grondwet en dat bepalingen van de Grondwet derhalve rechtskracht missen voor zover zij in strijd zijn met het Statuut, ongeacht of het grondwetsbepalingen betreft die gelden voor het gehele Koninkrijk dan wel uitsluitend voor het land Nederland (zie hierna, paragraaf 3). In de gedachtegang van de grondwetgever van 1956 wordt de Grondwet, voor zover zij afwijkt van het Statuut, automatisch door het Statuut aangevuld, gewijzigd of krachteloos gemaakt - dus materieel veranderd -, zodat een aanpassing van de tekst van de Grondwet aan het Statuut geen wijziging in het geldend recht brengt en dus louter een formele betekenis heeft (zie hierna, paragraaf 3). Om deze reden achtte de grondwetgever het niet nodig om voor een dergelijke aanpassing de normale procedure van grondwetsherziening voor te schrijven en werd in 1956 in artikel 213, eerste lid, Grondwet de bepaling opgenomen dat de tekst van de Grondwet bij de wet in overeenstemming kan worden gebracht met het Statuut ‘zoals dit thans luidt of nader mocht komen te luiden’. Dit opende de mogelijkheid om in de toekomst de tekst van de Grondwet door middel van een wet (dan wel rijkswet: zie hierna, paragraaf 6) aan te passen aan zowel het Statuut zoals dat op 29 december 1954 in werking was getreden, als aan eventuele latere wijzigingen van het Statuut. Bij de grondwetsherziening van 1983 heeft de bepaling van het voormalige artikel 213 zijn huidige redactie gekregen en is het vernummerd tot artikel 142. De expliciete verwijzing naar het vigerende en toekomstige Statuut is bij die gelegenheid geschrapt. Voorts rept artikel 142 in plaats van ‘De tekst van de Grondwet’ van ‘De Grondwet’ als het object dat bij wet met het Statuut in overeenstemming kan worden gebracht (zie hierna, paragraaf 8). De memorie van toelichting tekent bij deze redactiewijziging aan dat daarin duidelijker tot uitdrukking komt ‘dat het hier niet alleen om een puur tekstuele, maar ook om een inhoudelijke aanpassing gaat’.[3] De achtergrond van deze opmerking is niet geheel duidelijk. Was bij de regering de herinnering weggezakt aan de aan artikel 5, tweede lid, van het Statuut ten grondslag liggende rechtsopvatting dat het Statuut en niet de Grondwet geldt voor zover zij met elkaar onverenigbaar zijn? Het kan echter ook zijn dat deze rechtsopvatting vanzelf sprak, maar dat de gedachte dat een hogere regeling die voorgaat op een lagere, deze laatste materieel aanvult of anderszins wijzigt, inmiddels als een verouderde voorstelling van zaken werd gezien en dat de regering van oordeel was dat een herziening die de Grondwet in overeenstemming brengt met reeds geldend recht, niettemin een inhoudelijke wijziging is. Een derde mogelijkheid is dat de regering de wetgever die de Grondwet wil aanpassen aan het Statuut, meer armslag heeft willen bieden door hem een keuze toe te staan in het geval de Grondwet inhoudelijk op verschillende wijzen in een overeenstemming met het Statuut kan worden gebracht. Dit laatste is wellicht de meest zinvolle uitleg.

Ondertekening van het Statuut voor het Koninkrijk der Nederlanden door Koningin Juliana, 15 december 1954. Foto: www.comitekoninkrijksrelaties.org

 

Wat ook precies de achtergrond moge zijn van de redactie die het artikel bij de grondwetsherziening van 1983 heeft gekregen, de aan artikel 5, tweede lid, van het Statuut ten grondslag liggende rechtsopvatting blijft van cruciaal belang voor een goed begrip van artikel 142 Grondwet. Aangezien het Statuut voorgaat op de Grondwet, heeft een verandering van de Grondwet die haar in overeenstemming brengt met het Statuut, slechts een beperkte betekenis en mag deze verandering derhalve bij wet in plaats van bij gewone grondwetsherziening plaatsvinden. Dit laat onverlet dat het de grondwetgever te allen tijde vrijstaat om voor aanpassing van de Grondwet aan het Statuut de gewone procedure van grondwetsherziening te kiezen (zie hierna, paragraaf 5).
 
In de praktijk is (de voorloper van) artikel 142 Grondwet nog nooit toegepast. In de aanloop naar de op 10 oktober 2010 in werking getreden Statuutswijziging waarbij de Nederlandse Antillen zijn opgeheven en de Caribische eilanden Bonaire, Sint Eustatius en Saba zijn ondergebracht bij het land Nederland, heeft de Raad van State in overweging gegeven om de procedure van artikel 142 Grondwet toe te passen om de nieuwe staatkundige positie van deze drie eilanden in de Grondwet te vertalen,[4] maar de regering zag in deze Statuutswijziging geen afwijking van de Grondwet[5] en achtte artikel 142 Grondwet niet aan de orde.[6] 

 

 JURISPRUDENTIE

- Pres. Rb. ’s-Gravenhage 11 augustus 1988, zaak KG 88/1161 (Harmonisatiewet), AB 1988, 470; RegelMaat 1988, p. 149 e.v.; AA 1988, p. 776 e.v.
- HR 14 april 1989, zaak 13822 (Harmonisatiewet), NJ 1989, 469; AB 1989, 207; RegelMaat 1989, p. 80 e.v.; AA 1989, p. 578 e.v.; NJCM-Bulletin 1989, p. 581 e.v. 
 

Sourcehttps://www.nederlandrechtsstaat.nl/module/nlrs/script/viewer.asp?soort=commentaar&artikel=142

Source: https://www.hetrechtenstudentje.nl/jurisprudentie/eclinlhr1989ad5725-harmonisatiewet/

 

29.12.2013

Harmonisatiewet

Harmonisatiewet. Wet in formele zin. Uitleg van art. 120 Grondwet (Gr.w). Geen toetsing aan fundamentele rechtsbeginselen van de Nederlandse rechtsorde die nog geen uitdrukking hebben gevonden in enige, een ieder verbindende verdragsbepaling. Art. 6 Verdrag tot bescherming van de rechten van de mens en de fundamentele vrijheden (EVRM) verplicht niet tot een toetsing aan ongeschreven fundamentele rechtsbeginselen. Uitleg van art. 49 Statuut voor het Koninkrijk. Geen toetsing aan het Statuut voor het Koninkrijk.

 

Ubi iudicia deficiunt incipit bellum

Ubi iudicia deficunt incipit bellum, "Waar rechterlijke beslissingen te kort schieten daar begint de oorlog.

Dit adagium is ontleend Hugo Grotius (1583-1645): De iure belli ac pacis, liber II, caput I, par 2. (Hugo de Groot: Over het recht van oorlog en vrede, boek 2, hoofdstuk I, paragraaf 2.).

Waar het gezag en de toepassing van het gezag faalt ontstaat een wolvenmaatschappij waar onmacht, geweld en onrecht heerst.

Deze regel is zo fundamenteel om de grondslagen van het recht, haar bestaansreden en haar ultieme bron te kennen: "het regelen van orde en gezag door toepassing van de wet, teneinde oorlog, chaos en geweld te vermijden en de wereld leefbaar te houden.

Een rechtvaardige beslissing eigen aan de rechtvaardige rechter, brengt vrede die onderdrukking onnodig maakt.

Met ubi iudicia deficiunt incipit bellum maant de wetgever de rechter aan om weloverwogen een beslissing te nemen, de argumenten te aanhoren en te beantwoorden en in duidelijke woorden een wijze beslissing te nemen.

Met dit adagium wordt aangeduid dat de rechter het conflict "overneemt" om vrede door recht in de plaats te geven en samen met zijn collega's middels constante rechtspraak het recht nageleefd zien en door het recht e vrede in vervulling zien gaan.

Wanneer de rechter, zoals de laatste tijd meer en meer gebeurt, het geschil weer uit zijn handen en in de handen van de partijen legt, door bijvoorbeeld een bemiddeling "op te leggen" of te zeggen dat ouders als ouders maar zelf hun problemen met hun kinderen dienen op te nemen, verliest de rechter de pedalen en zou hij zich best opnieuw beraden over zijn taak: Recht spreken en een einde maken aan rechteloosheid of onduidelijkheid.

Source: http://elfri.be/juridische-informatie/ubi-iudicia-deficunt-incipit-bellum

 

Klik hier om een tekst te typen.

Een wetsvoorstel moet door beide kamers worden goedgekeurd: eerst door de Tweede Kamer en vervolgens door de Eerste Kamer. De functies van de twee kamers zijn daarbij in de praktijk verschillend: de Tweede Kamer heeft het recht van amendement en het recht van initiatief, de Eerste Kamer kan een wetsvoorstel enkel goed- of afkeuren.

De leden worden Kamerleden of parlementariërs genoemd, leden van de Eerste Kamer ook wel senatoren.

  • De Staten van Curaçao is het eenkamerige parlement van Curaçao. Het bestaat uit 21 leden en wordt gekozen voor een termijn van vier jaar.
  • Staten van Aruba is het eenkamerige parlement van Aruba. Het parlement telt 21 zetels die door directe verkiezingen (evenredige vertegenwoordiging) door de kiesgerechtigde Arubanen voor een periode van vier jaar gekozen worden. De Statenleden zijn georganiseerd in politieke partijen.
  • De Staten van Sint Maarten vormen het unicameraal parlement van het autonome land Sint Maarten. Zij bestaan uit vijftien leden die periodiek voor een termijn van 4 jaar worden gekozen.[1] De laatste Statenverkiezingen waren op 26 september 2016. Tot 10 oktober 2010 had Sint Maarten geen eigen gekozen volksvertegenwoordiging, wel had het 15 zetels in de Eilandsraad van de Nederlandse Antillen. De huidige voorzitter van de Staten is Sarah Wescot-Williams.[2]

Het motto van de Staten van Sint Maarten luidt Coram Populo (Openly in Presence of the People).

 

21:40 minutes Story

promissory note:
ˈprɒmɪsəri ˌnəʊt
noun
a signed document containing a written promise to pay a stated sum to a specified person or the bearer at a specified date or on demand.

     

     

    promissory note:

    sometimes referred to as a note payable, is a legal instrument (more particularly, a financial instrument and a debt instrument), in which one party (the maker or issuer) promises in writing to pay a determinate sum of money to the other (the payee), either at a fixed or determinable future time or on demand of the payee, under specific terms. If the promissory note is unconditional and readily saleable, it is called a negotiable instrument.[1]

    The term note payable is commonly used in accounting (as distinguished from accounts payable) or commonly as just a "note", it is internationally defined by the Convention providing a uniform law for bills of exchange and promissory notes, but regional variations exist. A banknote is frequently referred to as a promissory note, as it is made by a bank and payable to bearer on demand. Mortgage notes are another prominent example.

    Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Promissory_note

     

    Lex mercatoria

    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lex_mercatoria)
     
    This article's factual accuracy is disputed. Relevant discussion may be found on the talk page. Please help to ensure that disputed statements are reliably sourced. (March 2014) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
     

    Lex mercatoria (from the Latin for "merchant law"), often referred to as "the Law Merchant" in English, is the body of commercial law used by merchants throughout Europe during the medieval period. It evolved similar to English common law as a system of custom and best practice, which was enforced through a system of merchant courts along the main trade routes. It functioned as the international law of commerce.[1] It emphasised contractual freedom and alienability of property, while shunning legal technicalities and deciding cases ex aequo et bono. A distinct feature was the reliance by merchants on a legal system developed and administered by them[citation needed]. States or local authorities seldom interfered, and did not interfere a lot in internal domestic trade[citation needed]. Under lex mercatoriatrade flourished and states took in large amounts of taxation[citation needed].

    In the last years new theories had changed the understanding of this medieval treatise considering it as proposal for legal reform or a document used for instructional purposes[citation needed]. These theories consider that the treatise cannot be described as a body of laws applicable in its time, but the desire of a legal scholar to improve and facilitate the litigation between merchants. The text is composed by 21 sections and an annex. The sections described procedural matters such as the presence of witnesses and the relation between this body of law and common law. It has been considered as a false statement to define this as a system exclusively based in custom, when there are structures and elements from the existent legal system, such as Ordinances and even concepts proper of the Romano-canonical procedure.[2]

    History

    The lex mercatoria was originally a body of rules and principles laid down by merchants to regulate their dealings. It consisted of rules and customs common to merchants and traders in Europe, with some local variation. It originated from the need for quick and effective jurisdiction, administered by specialised courts. The guiding spirit of the merchant law was that it ought to derive from commercial practice, respond to the needs of the merchants, and be comprehensible and acceptable to the merchants who submitted to it. International commercial law today owes some of its fundamental principles to the lex mercatoria. This includes choice of arbitration institutions, procedures, applicable law and arbitrators, and the goal to reflect customs, usage and good practice among the parties.

    Goods and services flowed freely during the medieval merchant law, thus generating more wealth for all involved. It is debated whether the law was uniform in nature, was spontaneous as a method of dispute resolution, or applied equally to everyone who subordinated to it. The lex mercatoria was also a means for local communities to protect their own markets. Local kings or lords extracted taxes and set trade restrictions. In 1303 Edward I issued the Carta Mercatoria, a charter to foreign merchants in England, which guaranteed them freedom to trade, with certain protections and exemption under the law. Although the charter was revoked by Edward II, due to complaints by English merchants, foreign merchants retained most of their rights in practice, but these would vary widely with the march of time, events and changes to state policy.

    Administration

    The lex mercatoria was the product of customs and practices among traders, and could be enforced through the local courts. However, the merchants needed to solve their disputes rapidly, sometimes on the hour, with the least costs and by the most efficient means. Public courts did not provide this. A trial before the courts would delay their business, and that meant losing money. The lex mercatoria provided quick and effective justice. This was possible through informal proceedings, with liberal procedural rules. The lex mercatoriarendered proportionate judgements over the merchants’ disputes, in light of "fair price", good commerce, and equity.

    Judges were chosen according to their commercial background and practical knowledge. Their reputation rested upon their perceived expertise in merchant trade and their fair-mindedness. Gradually, a professional judiciary developed through the merchant judges. Their skills and reputation would however still rely upon practical knowledge of merchant practice. These characteristics serve as important measures in the appointment of international commercial arbitrators today.

    The lex mercatoria owed its origin to the fact that the civil law was not sufficiently responsive to the growing demands of commerce, as well as to the fact that trade in pre-medieval times was practically in the hands of those who might be termed cosmopolitan merchants, who wanted a prompt and effective jurisdiction. It was administered for the most part in special courts, such as those of the guilds in Italy, or the fair courts of Germany and France, or as in England, in courts of the Staple or Piepowder.

    Legal concepts

    The lex mercatoria was composed of such usages and customs as were common to merchants and traders in all parts of Europe, varied slightly in different localities by special peculiarities. Less procedural formality meant speedier dispensation of justice, particularly when it came to documentation and proof. Out of practical need, the medieval lex mercatoria originated the “writing obligatory”. By this, creditors could freely transfer the debts owed to them. The “writing obligatory” displaced the need for more complex forms of proof, as it was valid as a proof of debt, without further proof of; transfer of the debt; powers of attorney; or a formal bargain for sale. The lex mercatoria also strengthened the concept of party autonomy: whatever the rules of the lex mercatoria were, the parties were always free to choose whether to take a case to court, what evidence to submit and which law to apply.

    Reception

    Merchant law declined as a cosmopolitan and international system of merchant justice towards the end of medieval times. This was to a large extent due to the adoption of national commercial law codes. It was also connected with an increasing modification of local customs to protect the interests of local merchants. The result of the replacement of lex mercatoria codes with national governed codes was the loss of autonomy of merchant tribunals to state courts. The main reason for this development was the protection of state interests.

    The nationalisation of the lex mercatoria did not neglect the practises of merchants or their trans-border trade. Some institutions continued to function, and state judges also were appointed for their merchant expertise, just as modern commercial arbitrators. The laws of the merchants were not eradicated, but simply codified. National codes built on the principles laid down by trade commercial practise and to a large extent they embodied lex mercatoria substantial rules. This was for example the case in France. The Code Commercial was issued in 1807, where lex mercatoria rules were preserved to govern formation, performance and termination of contracts. In effect, the nation states reconstituted the lex mercatoria in their image.

    Common law development

    English courts applied merchant customs only if they were "certain" in nature, "consistent with law" and "in existence since time immemorial." English judges also required that merchant customs were proven before the court. But even as early as 1608, Chief Justice Edward Coke described lex mercatoria as "a part of the common law," and William Blackstone would later concur.[3] The tradition continued especially under Lord Mansfield, who is said to be the father of English commercial law. Precepts of the lex mercatoria were also kept alive through equity and the admiralty courts in maritime affairs. In the US, traditions of the lex mercatoria prevailed in the general principles and doctrines of commercial jurisprudence.

    The history of the lex mercatoria in England is divided into three stages: the first prior to the time of Coke, when it was a special kind of law – as distinct from the common law – administered in special courts for a special class of the community (i.e. the mercantile); the second stage was one of transition, the lex mercatoria being administered in the common law courts, but as a body of customs, to be proved as a fact in each individual case of doubt; the third stage, which has continued to the present day, dates from the presidency over the king's bench of Lord Mansfield (q.v.), under whom it was moulded into the mercantile law of to-day. To the lex mercatoria modern English law owes the fundamental principles in the law of partnership, negotiable instruments and trade marks.

     
    Lord Mansfield was a champion of fusing lex mercatoria with the common law.

    Sir John Holt (Chief Justice 1689 to 1710) and Lord Mansfield (Chief Justice, 1756 to 1788) were the leading proponents of incorporating the lex mercatoria into the common law. Holt did not complete the task, possibly out of his own conservatism (see Clerke v Martin[4]) and it was Lord Mansfield that became known as the 'founder of the commercial law of this country" (Great Britain).[5] Whilst sitting in Guildhall, Lord Mansfield created,

    a body of substantive commercial law, logical, just, modern in character and at the same time in harmony with the principles of the common law. It was due to Lord Mansfield's genius that the harmonisation of commercial custom and the common law was carried out with an almost complete understanding of the requirements of the commercial community, and the fundamental principles of the old law and that that marriage of idea proved acceptable to both merchants and lawyers.[6]

    International commercial law and arbitration

    Lex mercatoria precepts have been reaffirmed in new international mercantile law. National trade barriers are torn down in order to induce commerce. The new commercial law is grounded on commercial practice directed at market efficiency and privacy. Dispute resolution has also evolved, and functional methods like international commercial arbitration is now available. These developments have also attracted the interest of empirical sociology of law [7]The principles of the medieval lex mercatoria – efficiency, party autonomy, and choice of arbitrator – are applied, and arbitrators often render judgements based on customs. The new merchant law encompasses a huge body of international commercial law.

    Present and future commercial law

    In summary, nation states somewhat fragmented the medieval lex mercatoria but it is far from destroyed. Local interests triumphed in the medieval ages, just as national interests do today. A modern variant of the lex mercatoria is the evolving law and dispute resolution in cyberspace. Internet traders are the fastest growing body of merchants in history. Parties can solve domain-name disputes online expeditiously and quickly. In a virtual court documents are filed and examined online, arguments are made online and decisions are published online – seldom challenged before traditional courts of law. ICANN's UDRP (and its proposals for Rapid Suspension) and Nominet's DRS are examples of this. The medieval, the modern and cyberspace merchant laws face comparable issues of enforceability. They solve the problems somewhat differently, but the reaction of the market is the main incentive to comply with a ruling.

    Further, lex mercatoria is sometimes used in international disputes between commercial entities. Most often those disputes are decided by arbitrators which sometimes are allowed (explicitly of implied) to apply lex mercatoria principles.[8] Therefore, some legal practitioners assume that there is a whole set of legal principles named "lex mercatoria" in international or transnational commercial law. The most recent and constantly updated set of rules are the TransLex Principles collected and formulated by Klaus Peter Berger(University of Cologne) and his Center for Transnational Law.

    What remains of lex mercatoria precepts today is a qualified faith in self-regulation by merchants, and a reluctance to surrender the efficiencies of merchant practice to state confinement.

    See also

     

    The Theory Of The Lex Mercatoria

    Lex mercatoria is the Latin expression for a body of trading principles used by merchants throughout Europe in the medieval. Literally, it means “merchant law". It evolved as a system of custom and practice, which was enforced through a system of merchant courts along the main trade routes. It functioned as the international law of commerce. It emphasized contractual freedom, alienability of property, while shunning legal technicalities and deciding cases ex aequo et bono.

    (Ex aequo et bono (Latin for "according to the right and good" or "from equity and conscience") is a Latin phrase that is used as a legal term of art.)

    History Of Lex Mercatoria

    The notion of lex mercatoria is not new. Some say that it has its precursor in the Roman ius gentium, the body of law that regulated the economic relations between foreigners and Roman citizens. Others go further back in time and trace the origins of the lex mercatoria in the Ancient Egypt or in the Greek and Phoenician sea trade of the Old Ages. In any case, it is in the Law Merchant of the Middle Ages where the historical roots of the lex mercatoria can truly be found. The flourishing of international economic relations in Western Europe at the beginning of the 11th century caused the formation of the ‘Law Merchant’, a cosmopolitan mercantile law based upon customs and applied to cross-border disputes by the market tribunals of the various European trade centers. This law resulted from the effort of the medieval trade community to overcome the obsolete rules of feudal and Roman law which could not respond to the needs of the new international commerce. Merchants created a superior law, which constituted a solid legal basis for the great expansion of commerce in the Middle Ages. For almost 800 years, uniform rules of law, those of the law merchant were applied throughout Western Europe among traders.

    Many of the laws of the lex mercatoria were established to evade inconvenient rules of common law. An example in this regard is that a man could not give what he himself has not. In other words, a man who has no title to goods cannot give title. Hence, when a person buys an object, for him to be sure that he is the rightful owner of the title, he had to enquire into the title of that thing back to its remote possessors, to make sure that no one in the chain of title had obtained it by fraud. However, as per the laws of lex mercatoria, commercial business “cannot be carried on if we have to enquire into the title of everybody who comes to us with the documents of title." The Law merchant established certain documents or choses in action which were transferable by delivery and endorsement or by delivery so that the holder could sue in his own name and which passed good title to the transferee who took them in good faith, notwithstanding the transferor had no title. They could be sued on by their holder in his own name and were not affected by previous lack of title. This instrument was the original negotiable instrument. Hence, it can be rightly said that the law of negotiable instruments is founded mostly upon the laws of lex mercatoria.

    With the rise of nationalism and the codification period of the 19th century the ‘law merchant’ was incorporated into the municipal laws of each country. These laws blended with the national laws and thus lost its uniform character. When the states took over International trade, the new mercantile laws were applied to regulate international relations.

    However, the development of international trade after World War II showed some of the defects of the traditional regulation of international contracts. The complexity of the private international law and obsolete character of domestic laws did not rectify these flaws. The supremacy of national law in international economic relations began to be questioned. It was then the present traders started adopting alternative solutions to avoid the application of national law to their transactions. By means of standard clauses, self-regulatory contracts, trade usages and by recourse to international commercial arbitration, traders were creating their own regulatory framework independently from national law, which can be called the new lex mercatoria.

    Sources Of The Lex Mercatoria

    The lex mercatoria can be defined as a body of principles which is different in its origin and content, created by traders to serve the requisites of international trade. There are many concepts of lex mercatoria as it has been discussed by many thinkers dealing with the subject.

    When relating lex mercatoria with national law, there are 2 views that are prevalent, i.e., the autonomist and positivist concepts. As per the autonomous concept, lex mercatoria is having an autonomous character, independent from any national system of law. Hence, it can be rightly said that it is a set of general principles, and customary rules spontaneously referred to or elaborated in the framework of international trade, without reference to any particular national system of law. The positivist concept regards lex mercatoria as a body of rules, transnational in their origin, but which exists by virtue of state laws, which give them effect. For the supporters of this view, lex mercatoria is ultimately founded on national law.

    With regard to its substantive quality, there are three main concepts of lex mercatoria. The first one views lex mercatoria as an autonomous legal order. The second one conceives it as a body of rules capable of operating as an alternative to an otherwise applicable national law. The last concept characterizes lex mercatoria as a conglomerate of usages and expectations in international trade, which may complement the otherwise applicable law.

    The concept of lex mercatoria is usually linked with other concepts, which may be similar or alternative. Some thinkers refer to transnational law as a synonym of the lex mercatoria. Transnational law, however, is a very wide subject which is composed of all law regulating transboundaries actions or events, including private and public international law and other rules not fitting into those categories. The lex mercatoria is a much narrower concept which is used to indicate that part of transnational law which is unwritten.

    The Theory Of Lex Mercatoria

    It could be said that the theory of lex mercatoria is highly controversial. Some authors even deny its existence. Those who are against the concept of lex mercatoria are of the view that it lacks generality and predictability and that it is vague and incomplete. According to them, lex mercatoria lacks generality due to the existing diversity of standard contracts and trade usages. Therefore, each standard contract and trade usages reflects the sense of justice of the different trades or professions, being too diverse to constitute a homogeneous legal source.

    Similarly, the solutions reached by arbitrators in the application and possibly, in the creation of lex mercatoria only concern the current dispute, not being extrapolable to the generality of international trade. Few awards are published, making the outcome of future disputes difficult to predict. Hence, businessmen and arbitrators are not able to refer precedents for guidance, and arbitrators cannot be expected to apply customary law principles consistently. The lex mercatoria is furthermore accused of being vague and incomplete. Claims have been made that there are very few general principles of trade law that can be universally recognized; those very few are so basic and fundamental as to be useless. Even the proponents of the concept of lex mercatoria have agreed that it is incomplete. Lex mercatoria does not provide an answer for legal issues such as validity, capacity, or contract form. Anyway, the major obstacle to the theory of the lex mercatoria is its lack of binding force. It falls within the traditional definition of law. It does not result from the command of the sovereign as it has not been enacted by a parliament or endorsed in an international convention. However, many have argued from the point of legal pluralism that the lex mercatoria belongs to the domain of law. The concept of law largely departs from the notion of sanction and social organizations and is capable of producing its own rules. Some have objected to this position claiming that legal rules have an obligatory nature. The rules enacted by the legislator have an intrinsic binding force, whereas customary rules require opinio iuris, the feeling to be bound. This does not happen in the case of the purported rules of the lex mercatoria. Trade usages are a product of party autonomy; they are contractual practices generally observed and used as a proof of the will of the parties. The latter may therefore exclude their application by an express stipulation of the contract. Those in support of lex mercatoria have counter-attacked such a statement by noting that societas mercatorium has mechanisms of coercion to obtain compliance with its rules such as black lists, damage to commercial reputation or withdrawal from trade associations’ members’ rights. This result in the merchants actually feeling bound to observe the rules of the lex mercatoria.

    Finally, it has to be noted that even if some of the elements may be described as legal rules, the lex mercatoria does not have the quality of a legal system. The societas mercatorium cannot present its convictions and notions in a systematic order, as there is not a single international community of merchants but a plurality instead. At the most, there are only principia mercatoria.

    Application Of Lex Mercatoria In The Field Of International Commercial Arbitration

    As mentioned earlier, there has always been disagreement surrounding the application of national laws, primarily directed at domestic transactions to transnational contracts. It is highly desirable to apply international commercial laws to govern the international trade. On its application, not only would an appropriate body of law developed for international transactions be applied but the complicated process of selecting laws such as through conflict of laws would disappear. However, this argument can be valid only when one presupposes that there is a body of international commercial law, that there is lex mercatoria, which is developed and capable of being applied to international trade transactions.

    However, it has to be said that there is no legislature which drafts international commercial laws and there is not an international commercial court which is capable of developing a precedent for international commercial transactions. The opponents of the concept of lex mercatoria is of the view that lex mercatoria is not law in this regard. However, the proponents argue that it is law and can provide legal principles to govern international commercial transactions. They point to some international legislation in the form of conventions and model laws drafted by bodies such as United Nations Commission on International Trade Law. Moreover, while there is no international commercial court, there has developed an extensive system of international commercial arbitration and a number of arbitral awards are now published. Let us examine whether these can form a sufficient basis of a lex mercatoria.

    Arbitration is the preferred method of dispute resolution in international transactions. A set of rules is always necessary to govern the resolution of a conflict. The parties’ national laws will not always serve the individual interests and needs of that particular contract well. Hence, it would be a whole lot easier to apply international rules that can be applied for both the nations, namely the general principles of international trade law or the general usages of a particular trade. These internationally accepted principles of law governing contractual relations are called lex mercatoria.

    Applying lex mercatoria to settle international trade disputes has a lot of advantages. By applying lex mercatoria, the parties avoid rules which are unfit for international contracts such as peculiar formalities, brief cut-off periods and special difficulties created by national laws. In addition to that, neither of the parties will have the advantage of having the dispute governed by his own law. Moreover, since one of the major rules is the principle of good faith, lex mercatoria neither leads to arbitrary results nor does it favor the wealthy.

    The question remains when lex mercatoria can be applied in a dispute. The parties’ autonomy plays a very important role in international commercial arbitration. They are free to decide which national law should be applied, to exclude all national laws and to authorize the arbitrators to base their decision on lex mercatoria. It is possible for the arbitrators to apply lex mercatoria when no law has been chosen by the parties. The failure on the part of the parties in indicating a choice would mean that they did not wish to have their contract governed by any of their national law. However, it cannot be said deduced from the absence of such a choice that the parties have impliedly chosen lex mercatoria to be the law governing the dispute. It has to be noted that lex mercatoria is applicable only as a subsidiary law in cases where no national law has been chosen and seems apt.

    In most cases where no national law has been mentioned by the parties in the arbitration clause, they rarely mention lex mercatoria. They usually refer to the general principles of law, the usages of international trade, transnational law and the like. By wording their contract this way, they authorize the arbitral tribunal to apply lex mercatoria. This can be seen in the decision in Petroleum Development Ltd. v. Sheik of Abu Dhabi [1] . The opponents of lex mercatoria argue that if the parties wish to have their contract governed by lex mercatoria, they should have an explicit choice of law clause in the contract.

    At this point, let us look into the differences between lex mercatoria and amiable compositeur. By choosing lex mercatoria to be the law governing the conflict, the arbitrator is obliged to observe the mandatory rules. By choosing amiable compositeur, the arbitrator can base his decision on equitable principles and is freed from any law. This distinction has to be clarified because there have been many arbitral awards in which the arbitrators who are called on to act as amiables compositeurs apply the lex mercatoria. This is because the amiable composition clause has been given a very wide interpretation so as to include lex mercatoria. The insertion of an amiable composition clause into a contract gives the arbitrator great freedom. He can base his decision on his personal convictions. Consequently, if he considers transnational law or lex mercatoria to be applicable to the dispute or to serve the parties’ interests, he is free to apply it. Hence, it can be rightly said that the insertion of an amiable composition clause into a contract logically empowers the arbitrator to apply lex mercatoria. If, on the other hand, the parties have explicitly chosen lex mercatoria to be the law governing the conflict, the arbitrator is not free to act as amiable compositeur.

    It is quite common for the parties to a trade contract to omit to indicate the law governing the settlement of dispute. It is not necessary that lex mercatoria should be applied in such situations. Opponents of the concept of lex mercatoria are of the opinion that in such cases, the arbitral tribunal should determine an applicable national law consistent with the rules of conflict. But, in such cases, the arbitrator will be driven to give an award that is enforceable and recognizable. They will be influenced by some considerations when basing their award on general principles of law or usages of international trade as their colleagues who apply national law, and attempt to render a reasonable award. Moreover, if no choice has been made by the parties, it might lead to arbitrary and unpredictable results to oblige the arbitrators not to apply lex mercatoria but to choose one of the national laws connected with the contract. Therefore, it cannot be deduced from the absence of such a clause that the parties have agreed to settle the dispute as per the rules of lex mercatoria.

    Both opponents and proponents of lex mercatoria have their own arguments to support their contentions. To conclude, lex mercatoria should only be applied as a law governing the conflict if it has been explicitly chosen by the parties. One cannot automatically conclude the choice of lex mercatoria from the mere fact that the parties did not designate a national law to govern the conflict.

    There can also arise cases where the parties have explicitly chosen a national law and excluded the application of transnational law. It is not admissible to allow the application of lex mercatoria in such cases as it will go against the autonomy of the parties and the award would surely not be enforced by the national courts or respected by the parties. However, there is one exception to that principle. In cases where the designation of a national law or application of such a rule is absolutely impossible or contradicts a mandatory rule of international law, the application of transnational law is justified in order to settle the dispute.

    Arbitrators would disregard the parties’ autonomy and abuse the power granted to them if they applied lex mercatoria against the expressed will. An arbitrator cannot substitute his personal prefernces for the law chosen by the parties, as it would clearly contradict the principle of party autonomy and the mandatory rules of most national laws on arbitration.

    Lex mercatoria has an impact on cases where national laws have been applied. In such cases, the arbitrator often has to take usage of international trade into account to find a solution to interpret the facts, the contract and the parties’ behavior. This can be seen in the decision in Liamco v. Libya [2] . In another case [3] , in a contract involving an Italian and a Syrian enterprise, the parties chose a state law as the law governing the contract but only insofar as this law was in accordance with the general principles of law. In addition the parties chose the general principles of law as applied by international arbitral tribunals and not by other international courts. Therefore, the arbitrators applied lex mercatoria. In the award Saudi Arabia v. Aramco [4] , the arbitrators referred to the lex mercatoria to remedy the gaps of Saudi Arabian law.

    Another problem arises as a result of application of lex mercatoria by national courts. The main question regarding this is whether the national courts can apply it as law incompliance with the parties’ choice if no choice has been made. Opponents of this concept deny such a possibility even in cases where it was chosen by the parties as the law governing the contract. According to the supporters of lex mercatoria, it can be applied by virtue of a rule of conflict of the lex fori. The lex fori of the national court will thus define the extent and limits of the application of transnational law. This system of limited application of the lex mercatoria by national courts will not contribute uniformly to the law of international trade as it is not the same in every country.

    However, the national court will not completely ignore the parties’ decision to be governed by lex mercatoria as the parties’ autonomy has to be repsected. But, even in cases where lex mercatoria was not chosen by the parties, a national court might be obliged to seek inspiration from it in order to overcome the gaps in its national law or to avoid rules unfit for international trade.

    Enforcement Of Awards Based On Lex Mercatoria

    One has to admit that the national courts have jurisdictional monopoly. Arbitral tribunals only exist and settle disputes because it is tolerated by the national courts. At this point, a question can arise as to whether an award based on lex mercatoria will be enforced by the national courts. According to the classical doctrine, only national law exists. More modern arbitration laws use the term ‘rules of law’ and not only ‘law’. This includes lex mercatoria. There is no clear consensus on the question as to whether or not state courts have the possibility or even the duty to apply the law merchant when faced with an international trade dispute.

    It has also been argued that the application of the law merchant by national judges would not contribute to its growing popularity and use. National judges are bound by their own laws, and are not as free and inventive as arbitrators, and they lack experience in settling international trade issues. The lex mercatoria should therefore be developed and promulgated by arbitral tribunals only. If the parties to an international commercial dispute wish to have it governed by the lex mercatoria, they cannot be sure as to whether the national courts will enforce the agreement or the award based on it.

    There seems to be no particular reason to set aside an award based on lex mercatoria if the parties have inserted this as applicable in their arbitration clause. The award is still valid even if it is based on usage without reference to national law. Arbitrators are not bound to apply any national law or even rules of conflict.

    It has to be noted that there is no national law that denies enforcement of an arbitral award simply because it is based on lex mercatoria. Arbitration would be meaningless if national courts refused to enforce arbitral awards. Moreover, if a national law enables the parties to let an arbitrator act as amiable compositeur, then the courts of that nation cannot deny the enforcement of an award for the reason that it is based on a transnational law. Hence, national courts should enforce arbitral awards based on the lex mercatoria.

    Conclusion

    Lex mercatoria constitutes an effective system of law for dispute resolution in international trade. It is applied more and more by arbitrators, its rules are predictable and adapted to the needs of international commerce. It contains the usages of international merchant community and therefore, flexible and always up-to-date. Apart from customs, various other sources of lex mercatoria have been discovered, namely, public international law, international conventions, general principles of law, codes of conduct, standard form contracts, reporting of arbitral awards and compilations of the rules of lex mercatoria published by lawyers.

    International merchants have the right to include an arbitral clause in their contract and to stipulate that lex mercatoria be the law governing the conflict. Arbitrators have to respect this choice and apply the law merchant to settle the dispute. Recourse to national laws is only necessary when the lex mercatoria cannot provide adequate answers.

    Lex mercatoria does not lead to arbitrary results as alleged, for it is a law and the arbitrator cannot substitute his private preferences for the parties’ stipulations or the law merchant’s binding rules.

    It can be rightly said that at present, a-national arbitration does exist, i.e. arbitral courts that are not especially linked to one nation but composed of arbitrators of different nationalities and settling international disputes. By applying lex mercatoria, the parties avoid the difficult choice of one of their national laws to be the law governing the conflict, for this leads to arbitrary results and privileges one party who is economically stronger.

    In the years to come, lex mercatoria’s acceptance by the merchant community and its application by arbitral tribunals could be further promoted by a growing number of published awards. In the same manner, an increasing number of lists will also provide international traders and arbitrators with a useful survey of the law merchant’s contents and therefore contribute to its popularity. All these developments will contribute in dispelling the allegations put forward by the opponents of the concept of lex mercatoria.

    Source: https://www.lawteacher.net/free-law-essays/commercial-law/the-theory-of-the-lex-mercatoria-commercial-law-essay.php

     

    Werving en selectie raadsheren

    Wie kunnen raadsheer in de Hoge Raad worden?

    Cassatievraagstukken zijn vaak ingewikkeld. Daarom komen alleen de knapste juristen in aanmerking voor een plaats in de Hoge Raad. Juristen bovendien die behalve veel kennis ook een grote beroepservaring hebben opgedaan, bijvoorbeeld in de rechterlijke macht, de advocatuur, de wetenschap of de belastingwereld. Raadsheer in de Hoge Raad worden mensen dan ook pas als zij al een flink eind zijn gevorderd in hun loopbaan. Voor een groot aantal raadsheren is het hun laatste functie. De Hoge Raad heeft profielen opgesteld waarin eisen staan waaraan nieuwe raadsheren moeten voldoen.

    Specialisten naast generalisten

    Gemiddeld zijn er zo’n 10 raadsheren per kamer. Dat betekent dat die tien juristen die de civiele kamer, de strafkamer of de belastingkamer bemensen met elkaar het betreffende rechtsgebied volledig in de vingers moeten hebben. Daarvoor zijn  generalisten nodig, maar ook specialisten. Zo heeft de strafkamer behoefte aan deskundigen op het gebied van bijvoorbeeld strafprocesrecht en internationaal strafrecht. Heeft de civiele kamer raadsheren met allerlei specialismen nodig zoals intellectuele eigendom, internationaal privaatrecht of aansprakelijkheidsrecht. En kan de belastingkamer niet zonder experts op het gebied van bijvoorbeeld vennootschapsbelasting, omzetbelasting en douanerecht.
    Alle kamers moeten bovendien de nodige kennis en ervaring in huis hebben wat betreft Europees recht. En met het oog op de rechtseenheid is het van belang dat raadsheren ook het nodige weten van de rechtsgebieden van de andere kamers.
    Deze specifieke behoefte aan kennis en ervaring maakt dat er op het moment dat er een vacature is, heel gericht moet worden gezocht naar een kandidaat die de op dat moment nodige kennis en ervaring inbrengt. Die omstandigheid en het hoge niveau dat is vereist, maken dat de vijver waaruit kan worden gevist erg klein is.

    Diversiteit

    De Hoge Raad streeft naar een zo divers mogelijke samenstelling. Divers qua beroepsachtergrond van de raadsheren, dat wil zeggen een evenwichtige mix van mensen die binnen de rechterlijke macht, de advocatuur, de wetenschap, de belastingwereld of een combinatie daarvan hun sporen hebben verdiend. Daarnaast streeft de Hoge Raad naar meer vrouwelijke raadsheren. Nu is zo’n 26 procent  vrouw en dat moet hoger. De Hoge Raad kijkt in het bijzonder uit naar gekwalificeerde vrouwen maar hoopt ook op een natuurlijk effect. Aangezien er in de rechterlijke macht steeds meer vrouwen werkzaam zijn en de Hoge Raad pas aan het eind van een loopbaan in zicht komt, zullen naar verwachting in de toekomst ook meer vrouwen hun weg naar de Hoge Raad vinden.

    Hoe vindt de Hoge Raad kandidaat-raadsheren?

    De Hoge Raad oriënteert zich zo breed mogelijk op potentiële kandidaten. Door te polsen bij gerechten, in de advocatuur, de wetenschap, de belastingwereld naar wie voor deze functie geschikt zou kunnen zijn. Door jaarlijks door middel van een advertentie mensen op de mogelijkheid van een functie als raadsheer in de Hoge Raad te attenderen. Geïnteresseerden kunnen naar aanleiding daarvan zichzelf melden als potentiële kandidaat maar ook derden kunnen kandidaten aandragen. 
    Potentiële kandidaten worden gewogen door een selectiecommissie waarin de drie kamers van de raad zijn vertegenwoordigd. Zo nodig heeft de selectiecommissie oriënterende gesprekken met potentiële kandidaten. Leidraad bij de selectie van kandidaten zijn de profielen waarin staat aan welke eisen een raadsheer moet voldoen. De selectiecommissie stelt een definitieve kandidatenlijst voor. Hierop staan kandidaten die op enig moment in de Hoge Raad zullen komen, afhankelijk van hun eigen wensen, van wanneer er een vacature is en van welke expertise er op dat moment nodig is.

    Hoge Raad beveelt aan, Tweede Kamer draagt voor

    Bij een vacature in de Hoge Raad beveelt de Hoge Raad een kandidaat aan bij de Tweede Kamer. Daarbij krijgt de Tweede Kamer een lijst van zes kandidaatleden. De bovenste op de lijst is de aanbevolen kandidaat. De Tweede Kamer heeft met alle nieuwe kandidaten op de aanbevelingslijst een gesprek en hoort ook altijd de aanbevolen kandidaat, de nummer 1 van de lijst. 
    De Tweede Kamer neemt de aanbeveling van de Hoge Raad meestal over en draagt de betreffende kandidaat voor aan de ministerraad voor benoeming door de koning.

    Benoeming leden van de raad

    De leden van de Hoge Raad worden voor het leven benoemd bij koninklijk besluit. Op eigen verzoek of wanneer raadsheren de leeftijd van 70 jaar bereiken, wordt hun ontslag verleend. De aanstelling van een lid van de Hoge Raad die de leeftijd van eenenzestig jaar heeft bereikt kan op zijn verzoek worden gewijzigd in een aanstelling als raadsheer in buitengewone dienst. Een raadsheer in buitengewone dienst vervult niet meer een volledige taak.

    Source: https://www.rechtspraak.nl/Organisatie-en-contact/Organisatie/Hoge-Raad-der-Nederlanden/Over-de-Hoge-Raad/Raad/Paginas/Werving-en-selectie-raadsheren.aspx

     

    Hoge Raad der Nederlanden

    De Hoge Raad der Nederlanden (kortweg Hoge Raad) is de hoogste rechtsprekende instantie in NederlandArubaCuraçao en Sint Maarten op civielrechtelijk, strafrechtelijk en belastingrechtelijk gebied. De Hoge Raad zetelt in Den Haag en is belast met het toezicht op de rechtseenheid en rechtsontwikkeling van het Nederlandse recht. Een rechter van de Hoge Raad wordt, ongeacht of het nu gaat om een man of vrouw, een raadsheer genoemd.

    Source: https://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hoge_Raad_der_Nederlanden

     

    Preambule- Hoofdinhoud  (ALL CAPS)

    ZIJNE MAJESTEIT DE KONING DER BELGEN, HARE MAJESTEIT DE KONINGIN VAN DENEMARKEN, DE PRESIDENT VAN DE BONDSREPUBLIEK DUITSLAND, DE PRESIDENT VAN DE HELLEENSE REPUBLIEK, ZIJNE MAJESTEIT DE KONING VAN SPANJE, DE PRESIDENT VAN DE FRANSE REPUBLIEK, DE PRESIDENT VAN IERLAND, DE PRESIDENT VAN DE ITALIAANSE REPUBLIEK, ZIJNE KONINKLIJKE HOOGHEID DE GROOTHERTOG VAN LUXEMBURG, HARE MAJESTEIT DE KONINGIN DER NEDERLANDEN, DE PRESIDENT VAN DE PORTUGESE REPUBLIEK, HARE MAJESTEIT DE KONINGIN VAN HET VERENIGD KONINKRIJK VAN GROOT-BRITTANNIE EN NOORD-IERLAND,

    VASTBESLOTEN een nieuwe etappe te markeren in het proces van Europese integratie waarmee een aanvang is gemaakt met de oprichting van de Europese Gemeenschappen,

    HERINNEREND aan het historisch belang van de beëindiging van de deling van het Europese continent en de noodzaak solide grondslagen voor de opbouw van het toekomstige Europa te leggen,

    BEVESTIGEND hun gehechtheid aan de beginselen van vrijheid, democratie en eerbiediging van de mensenrechten en de fundamentele vrijheden en van de rechtsstaat,

    BEVESTIGEND hun gehechtheid aan de sociale grondrechten zoals omschreven in het op 18 oktober 1961 te Turijn ondertekende Europees Sociaal Handvest en in het Gemeenschapshandvest van de sociale grondrechten van de werkenden van 1989,

    VERLANGEND de solidariteit tussen hun volkeren te verdiepen met inachtneming van hun geschiedenis, cultuur en tradities,

    VERLANGEND de democratische en doelmatige werking van de instellingen verder te ontwikkelen, teneinde hen in staat te stellen de hun toevertrouwde taken beter uit te voeren, in één enkel institutioneel kader,

    VASTBESLOTEN de versterking en de convergentie van hun economieën te verwezenlijken en een economische en monetaire unie tot stand te brengen met, overeenkomstig het bepaalde in dit Verdrag, één enkele en stabiele munteenheid,

    VASTBESLOTEN de economische en sociale vooruitgang van hun volkeren te bevorderen, met inachtneming van het beginsel van duurzame ontwikkeling en in het kader van de voltooiing van de interne markt en van versterkte cohesie en milieubescherming, en een beleid te voeren dat er borg voor staat dat de vooruitgang op het gebied van de economische integratie en de vooruitgang op andere terreinen gelijke tred met elkaar houden,

    VASTBESLOTEN voor de onderdanen van hun landen een gemeenschappelijk burgerschap in te voeren,

    VASTBESLOTEN een gemeenschappelijk buitenlands en veiligheidsbeleid te voeren met inbegrip van de geleidelijke bepaling van een gemeenschappelijk defensiebeleid dat tot een gemeenschappelijke defensie zou kunnen leiden, overeenkomstig de bepalingen van artikel 17, daarbij de Europese identiteit en onafhankelijkheid versterkend, teneinde vrede, veiligheid en vooruitgang in Europa en in de wereld te bevorderen,

    VASTBESLOTEN het vrije verkeer van personen te vergemakkelijken en tegelijkertijd tevens de veiligheid en zekerheid van hun volkeren te waarborgen, door een ruimte van vrijheid, veiligheid en rechtvaardigheid tot stand te brengen, overeenkomstig het bepaalde in dit Verdrag,

    VASTBESLOTEN voort te gaan met het proces van totstandbrenging van een steeds hechter verbond tussen de volkeren van Europa, waarin besluiten zo dicht mogelijk bij de burgers worden genomen in overeenstemming met het subsidiariteitsbeginsel,

    MET HET OOG OP verdere stappen die moeten worden gezet om de Europese integratie te bevorderen,

    HEBBEN BESLOTEN een Europese Unie op te richten en hebben te dien einde als hun gevolmachtigden aangewezen:

    (lijst van ondertekenaars niet opgenomen)

    DIE, na overlegging van hun in goede en behoorlijke vorm bevonden volmachten, overeenstemming hebben bereikt omtrent de volgende bepalingen:

    Source: https://www.denederlandsegrondwet.nl/9353000/1/j9vvihlf299q0sr/vh25de3xans0

     

    Een grondwet zonder preambule- Hoofdinhoud

    april 2009

    Veel grondwetten beginnen met een inleidend artikel, de zogenaamde preambule. Het beroemdste voorbeeld is ongetwijfeld de Amerikaanse grondwet, beginnend met de woorden ‘We the people of the United States...’.

    De Nederlandse grondwet kent niet zo’n inleidend artikel. Het kabinet-Balkenende IV i overwoog om een preambule aan de grondwet toe te voegen om de grondwet een meer samenbindend karakter te geven. Het is niet de eerste keer dat een Nederlands kabinet dit deed. Ook in de jaren vijftig werd er over een preambule gepraat. Het debat hierover struikelde echter na een confessionele ‘coup’.

     

    1.

    De preambule in recht en praktijk

    Er zijn veel verschillende soorten preambules. Wat ze gemeen hebben is dat ze een soort ‘voorverklaring’ op de grondwet vormen, die aan de eigenlijke tekst voorafgaat. Meestal heeft die voorverklaring niet dezelfde juridische status als de rest van de grondwet: er kunnen geen rechten aan worden ontleend. Wat is dan wel de functie van zo’n preambule?

    Een preambule dient duidelijk te maken wat de relatie is tussen een grondwet en degenen waarvoor deze bedoeld is. Meestal is dat ‘het volk’ – denk maar aan het Amerikaanse ‘We the people’ -, soms zijn dit echter degenen die de grondwet, in principe namens het volk, ondertekenen. Een voorbeeld van deze laatste constructie is de preambule bij het Statuut voor het Koninkrijk i der Nederlanden.

    Deze ‘constateert’ dat ‘..Nederland, Suriname en de Nederlandse Antillen in 1954 uit vrije wil hebben verklaard in het Koninkrijk der Nederlanden een nieuwe rechtsorde te aanvaarden..’. Een ander voorbeeld is de preambule bij de niet-aangenomen Europese Grondwet i uit 2004. In deze preambule stond onder een lijst van de namen van de staatshoofden, hun inspiratiebronnen en overwegingen dat de ondertekenaars ‘…als volgt zijn overeengekomen…’. Daarop volgde dan de inhoud van de grondwet.

    Soorten preambules

    Hoe de relatie tussen volk en grondwet in de preambule is weergegeven, is van veel meer afhankelijk dan van de preambule alleen.

    Sommige preambules verwijzen naar de geschiedenis van volk en grondwet, andere naar religie, gedeelde waarden of naar de vraag waar de hoogste macht (soevereiniteit) ligt. Hoewel veel preambules meer dan één van deze elementen in zich hebben, zou op basis van de functie de volgende verdeling gemaakt kunnen worden:

    • de preambule als ‘bronvermelding’ die aangeeft waar het recht vandaan komt en voor wie het is bedoeld. Hier is de functie van de preambule dus vooral expressief. Als voorbeeld kan opnieuw de Amerikaanse grondwet dienen. De aanhef ‘we the people’ maakt duidelijk dat het volk zelf de grondwet vaststelt: het volk is dus soeverein en geldt als bron, maar tegelijk als ontvanger van dit recht.
    • de preambule als opsomming van kernwaarden waarop de grondwet berust. Hier is de functie van de preambule vooral juridisch. De preambule geeft een interpretatiekader bij de ‘echte’ grondwetsartikelen. Een voorbeeld vormen de overwegingen uit de verworpen Europese grondwet. De ‘vrijheid, democratie, gelijkheid en de rechtsstaat’ die hierin worden genoemd, zouden kunnen worden gebruikt bij de uitleg van concrete regels over bijvoorbeeld verkiezingen of immigratie.
    • de preambule als totstandbrenging of karakterisering van het volk waarvoor de grondwet bedoeld is. De functie van de preambule is hier evocatief, beeldend (wanneer de grondwet nog een volk moet vormen) of identificerend (wanneer de grondwet achteraf de identiteit van een al bestaand volk vastlegt). De Europese grondwet had bijvoorbeeld een evocatieve functie: terwijl er niet werkelijk een Europees volk bestaat moeten formuleringen als ‘steeds hechter verenigd’ en ‘gemeenschappelijke lotsbestemming’ helpen dit tot stand te brengen. Het onder 2. besproken Nederlandse preambule-voorstel uit 1950, waarin het christendom als ‘Nederlandse waarde’ werd erkend, is een voorbeeld van een preambule met een identificerende functie.

     

    2.

    Preambules in de Nederlandse grondwetsgeschiedenis

    De eerste Nederlandse grondwet

    De huidige Nederlandse grondwet heeft geen preambule. De eerste Nederlandse grondwet, de Bataafse Staatsregeling uit 1798, had dit wel. Deze had vooral een expressieve en een evocatieve functie.

    Voor de totstandkoming van de Staatsregeling had er geen Nederlands volk bestaan, omdat men in de eerste plaats burger van zijn of haar provincie was. De verklaring dat de nieuwe Staatsregeling bedoeld was voor ‘[h]et Bataafsche Volk, zig vormende tot eenen ondeelbaaren Staat’ was dus essentieel. Tegelijk maakt de preambule duidelijk dat het volk zelf de Staatsregeling heeft gekozen als zijn ‘wettigen grondslag’: het volk is dus soeverein.

    In 1814, toen de huidige Nederlandse grondwet vorm kreeg, was er geen sprake van een soeverein volk. De eenheidsstaat was inmiddels definitief gevestigd. Aan een preambule leek dus geen behoefte meer.

    Een confessionele ‘coup’ in de jaren vijftig

    Pas in 1950 komt de preambule weer terug in de discussie over de Nederlandse grondwet. Deze discussie werd op gang gebracht door de recent gesloten verdragen van samenwerkingsverbanden op Europees (Raad van Europa) en internationaal (Verenigde Naties) niveau.

    De Staatscommissie-Van Schaik i, die in opdracht van de regering nadacht over een algehele modernisering van de grondwet, zag in die verdragen twee kernwaarden die ook in de Nederlandse grondwet beter tot uitdrukking gebracht konden worden: democratie en christendom.

    In de daaropvolgende discussie sneuvelde ‘democratie’ al snel: deze waarde was immers al in de grondwet aanwezig via de bepalingen over kiesrecht en machtenscheiding. Expliciet opschrijven dat het land democratisch was vonden de commissieleden meer iets voor ontwikkelingslanden dan voor Nederland. Een voorzichtige verwijzing naar het christelijk karakter van de Nederlandse samenleving wilde een meerderheid van de commissieleden echter wel overwegen.

    Wat toen gebeurde lijkt voor het slagen van deze preambule fataal te zijn geweest. In eerste instantie schoof de subcommissie die over de preambule moest adviseren het moeilijke onderwerp wat voor zich uit. Toen na enkele maanden bij een vergadering alleen confessionele commissieleden aanwezig bleken, werd het hete hangijzer echter binnen diezelfde vergadering nog afgehandeld.

    De ontbrekende commissieleden - met name de sociaaldemocraat M. van der Goes van Naters i en de liberaal A.M. Molenaar i - reageerden furieus op deze confessionele ‘coup’.

    De voorgestelde preambule noemde het christendom niet alleen als inspirerende kernwaarde, maar stelde bovendien ‘God als Schepper en Hoogste Wetgever’ als bron van soevereiniteit boven de grondwet! Hier konden de niet-confessionele commissieleden zich niet in vinden. Hoewel de kwestie ook door de plenaire vergadering nog grondig besproken zou worden leek de kans op een compromis juist door het voortvarende optreden van de confessionelen vervlogen.

    Het confessionele voorstel zou uiteindelijk, in aangepaste vorm, als minderheidsvoorstel aan het rapport van de commissie worden toegevoegd. Omdat de algehele grondwetsherziening door de regering vervolgens op de lange baan zou worden geschoven, was de discussie over een preambule daarmee gesloten.

    Latere discussies

    Na de Staatscommissie-Van Schaik werd de modernisering van de Nederlandse grondwet van regeringswege ter hand genomen in de Proeve van een nieuwe grondwet (1966) en door de Staatsommissie-Cals/Donner i. De Proeve, die juist streefde naar eenvoud en inkorting van de grondwet, zag weinig in een inleidend artikel dat ‘geen rechtsregel’ zou bevatten en bovendien vanwege dit onduidelijke karakter vooral ‘bron van discussies’ zou worden.

    Ook de Commissie-Cals/Donner wees de preambule af. De commissie meende dat de ‘eenheid van land en volk’ na anderhalve eeuw ook zonder preambule wel voldoende vast lag. Alleen het commissielid namens het GPV i, A.J. Verbrugh i, vond een preambule als ‘oriëntatiepunt’ zeer gewenst gezien ‘de tegenwoordige versnelde vooruitgang in de samenleving’.

    Hoewel er tijdens de Kamerdebatten over de algehele grondwetsherziening vooral door de fracties van GPV en SGP nog enkele malen om zo’n verbindende preambule werd gevraagd, zou de herziene grondwet van 1983 net als zijn voorgangers geen inleidend artikel bevatten.

     

    3.

    Actuele voorstellen

    Het kabinet-Balkenende IV heeft de preambule opnieuw op de agenda voor herziening van de grondwet gezet. Dit komt voort uit de wens om de grondwet een meer samenbindende functie te geven. In een speech bij de herdenking van 25 jaar algehele grondwetsherziening stelde minister Ter Horst i voor om te denken aan het opnemen van een preambule in de vorm van ‘een inleidende en inspirerende tekst die de Grondwet een context en een perspectief biedt.’ Een staatscommissie zal zich binnenkort gaan buigen over de wenselijkheid van zo’n preambule.

    Deze nieuwe discussie over een preambule bij de grondwet is onder meer het resultaat van het rapport van de Nationale Conventie i. Deze adviseerde de regering in 2006 om een breed maatschappelijk debat over de inhoud van een nieuwe preambule op te starten. De conventie deed ook zelf enkele voorstellen voor een preambule.

     

    4.

    Meer informatie

    Source: https://www.denederlandsegrondwet.nl/9353000/1/j9vvihlf299q0sr/vi49m4bzqans

     

    Preambule

    Een preambule of considerans is een (vaak ongenummerde) inleidende tekst op de bepalingen van een contract, wet of verdrag. In de preambule wordt vaak het doel geschetst, een onderliggende filosofie en/of de omstandigheden die hebben geleid tot de wet of het verdrag. De preambule heeft juridische betekenis, soms met verstrekkende gevolgen die door de opstellers niet werden voorzien.
     

    Woensdag, 3 Oktober 2007

     

    Het verraad van Beatrix

    Nederland wordt uitgeleverd aan een Brusselse, machtsgeile kliek. Hoofdverantwoordelijken daarvoor zijn PvdA en CDA, die kennelijk alles overhebben voor de macht. Ooit hebben de dappere watergeuzen gevochten tegen de Spaanse overheerser en ons land bevrijd van de onderdrukker. Wij hebben gevochten tegen het water om ons land droog te houden en onderdak te bieden aan allen die ons land willen helpen opbouwen. Er is een uniek volk ontstaan aan de kust bij de zee. Met een noodtempo wordt dit alles op de mestvaalt van de geschiedenis geworpen en niemand die er zich druk over lijkt te maken. Morgen stemt men rustig weer op de partijen die ons land en volk, haar soevereiniteit en geschiedenis uitleveren. Willem van Oranje draait zich om in zijn graf.

    Bovenstaand stukje is afkomstig uit een zeer lezenswaardig artikel van Lucas Hartong op Het Vrije Volk, waarin een aantal grondwettelijke consequenties van de nieuwe EU grondwet nog eens op een rijtje worden gezet. Het is niet voor te stellen dat de Raad van State deze consequenties niet ziet, en de conclusie moet dan ook zijn dat het advies aan het parlement een bewuste leugen is, georkestreerd door Beatrix en haar Bilderberg belangen, die meer met de New World Order dan met de Staat der Nederlanden te maken hebben. In hetzelfde hokje kan het verraad van de Balkenbende worden geplaatst; deze club is immers ook onderhorig aan diezelfde dictator.

    En zo wordt voor één keertje voor eenieder die het wil zien duidelijk dat Medeland helemaal geen democratie is, maar een dictatorschap waarbij de kroon de absolute macht in handen heeft. Te vrezen valt echter dat de meeste Medelanders het niet eens in de gaten hebben. Voor liefhebbers van individuele vrijheid zal deze ontwikkeling de zaak alleen nog maar verder schaden, maar het lijkt er meer en meer op dat emigratie naar de VS niet het antwoord is. Ook in de VS worden vrijheden van de burger met de dag meer ingeperkt, zogenaamd ten gunste van het collectief, maar in werkelijkheid ten nadele van iedereen.

    Al heel lang geleden zongen Jenny Arean en Frans Halsema het liedje “Vluchten kan niet meer”. Waar kun je nog naartoe?

    Source: http://www.vrijspreker.nl/wp/2007/10/het-verraad-van-beatrix/

     

    International Order

    World order is an international-relations term meaning "the distribution of power and authority among the political actors on the global stage."

    PERSON = ACTOR

    Prophet Ken Peters - I Saw the Great Tribulation (High Quality) 

    Acts 4:

    26 The kings of the earth stood up, and the rulers were gathered together against the Lord, and against his Christ.

     

    Isaiah 23:

    17 And it shall come to pass after the end of seventy years, that the LORD will visit Tyre (Tyre lebanon), and she shall turn to her hire, and shall commit fornication with all the kingdoms of the world upon the face of the earth.


    Jeremiah 25:

    26 And all the kings of the north, far and near, one with another, and all the kingdoms of the world, which are upon the face of the earth: and the king of Sheshach shall drink after them.


    Matthew 4:

    8 Again, the devil taketh him up into an exceeding high mountain, and sheweth him all the kingdoms of the world, and the glory of them;


    Luke 4:

    5 And the devil, taking him (Yahushua) up into an high mountain, shewed unto him all the kingdoms of the world in a moment of time.

     

    Hosea 4:6
    John 15:16
    2 Corinthians 3:6
    Acts 16:17
    Ezra 7:24
    1 Corinthians 7:23-24

     

    Deut 17:6, 19:15
    Matt 18:16
    2 Cor 13:1
    Heb 10:28

     


    https://overons.kpn/nl/het-bedrijf/onze-merken

    https://www.bullionstar.com/gold-university/central-bank-gold-policies-de-nederlandsche-bank-dnb

    https://vereniging.vrije-mens.org/de-staat/6-de-staat-der-nederlanden

    https://www.sec.gov/Archives/edgar/data/72971/000119312506254328/dsc13ga.htm

    https://newchristianbiblestudy.org/bible/dutch-svv/deuteronomy/17/

    https://wikikids.nl/Rechtspraak

    Schaf “bij de gratie Gods” in wetten af
    Stientje van Veldhoven
    Staatssecretaris van Infrastructuur en Waterstaat
    https://d66.nl/schaf-gratie-gods-wetten-af/

    D66 wil dat het kabinet erop aandringt dat de overheid niet langer vermeldt dat wetten worden opgesteld “bij de gratie Gods”. Dat is de strekking van een initiatiefwetsvoorstel dat D66-Tweede Kamerlid Stientje van Veldhoven vandaag indient. De Democraat vindt dat nu een onjuist beeld wordt gegeven van de grondslag van de Nederlandse rechtsstaat.

    Van Veldhoven: “De vermelding van “bij de gratie Gods” bij ondertekening van wetten is in strijd met onze scheiding van Kerk en Staat. De soevereiniteit ligt in Nederland bij de mensen, niet bij een God. Kiezers stemmen op volksvertegenwoordigers, die namens hen wetten maken. Dat wetgevingsproces hoort in onze democratie neutraal te zijn. Maar de “gratie Gods” verbindt dit proces met religie en dat is niet de bedoeling.”

    Weigering Rutte
    Het vermelden van de “gratie Gods” is gebruikelijk bij de ondertekening van wetten door de koning. “Bij de gratie Gods” kan al sinds de grondwetsherziening van 1983 worden aangepast, omdat de vermelding niet in het officiële afkondigingsformulier van de Grondwet staat. De sindsdien regerende kabinetten hebben dat niet gedaan. D66 heeft voor het eerst op afschaffing van de “gratie Gods” aangedrongen in 2010, tijdens de begroting Algemene Zaken. Na meerdere weigeringen van premier Rutte, besloot Van Veldhoven zelf het initiatief te nemen voor afschaffing van “gratie Gods”. Van Veldhoven: “Natuurlijk respecteren we het geloof in Gods wil. Maar het vermelden van de “gratie Gods” breekt in op de neutraliteit van onze wetgeving. Gods wil wordt nu uitgedrukt in elke wet die wordt aangenomen. Het kabinet moet dat veranderen.”

    Scheiding
    Het initiatiefwetsvoorstel van Van Veldhoven sluit aan bij eerdere voorstellen van D66 om een duidelijke scheiding tussen Kerk en staat te bewerkstelligen. Zo heeft de partij ervoor gezorgd dat godslastering niet langer strafbaar is, dat ‘weigerambtenaren’, gemeenteambtenaren die door hun geloof weigeren homoseksuele stellen te trouwen, worden uitgebannen en dat scholen, instellingen of organisaties die gebaseerd zijn op een geloofsovertuiging niet langer homo-, biseksuelen of transgenders mogen weigeren. Ook is sinds vorig jaar godslastering op voorstel van SP en D66 niet langer strafbaar. Nu wil D66 dus dat “bij de gratie Gods” niet langer vermeld wordt in wetten.

    Alle seculiere partijen vinden dat de soevereiniteit uiteindelijk bij Nederlandse burgers rust en niet bij een god. Daarom verwacht D66 een meerderheid voor het wetsvoorstel.

     

    God heeft geen plaats in de Europese Grondwet
    HOME
    Max van den Berg– 11 oktober 2003

    Het voorstel van Balkenende joods-christelijke waarden in de Europese Grondwet te zetten is geen goed idee. Het is overbodige tekst en getuigt niet van respect tegenover andersdenkenden. Deel 5 in een serie over een zich verenigend Europa.
    U krijgt 5 artikelen van Trouw cadeau. Dit is nummer 1 .
    Onbeperkt onze artikelen lezen? Digitaal Basis € 2.50 per week.

    Premier Balkenende wil een verwijzing naar de joods-christelijke waarden opnemen in de Europese Grondwet. God in de Grondwet is voor Balkenende niet zomaar wat wisselgeld dat tegen een ander aantrekkelijk voorstel kan worden ingeruild.

    Nee: het is een van zijn hoofdpunten in de onderhandelingen over een Europese Grondwet. Nog liever heeft hij dit dan een eigen eurocommissaris voor Nederland.

    De Conventie, het overleg over de Grondwet, heeft een voorstel gemaakt. Het is een Grondwet die de huidige verwarrende hoeveelheid regelingen, richtlijnen en besluiten terugbrengt tot een overzichtelijk geheel. Een Grondwet die de basiswaarden van de EU, zoals vrijheid, gelijkheid en pluriformiteit, helder en compleet opsomt. Die de grondrechten van de burgers vastlegt. Die de taakverdeling tussen de EU en de lidstaten duidelijk en flexibel opsomt. En die de rol van het Europees Parlement als medewetgever in Europa aanzienlijk versterkt.

    De ontwerpgrondwet is goed nieuws voor Europa en haar burgers. Het voorstel is stukken beter dan het rammelende compromis dat de regeringsleiders twee jaar geleden tijdens de conferentie van Nice bereikten. De toen gehanteerde gesloten en ambtelijke werkmethoden liepen uit op een mislukking. Nu het via democratische methode wel is gelukt, is het pijnlijk te zien hoe regeringsleiders toch weer om het hardst vechten om een stemmetje extra of een korting op hun bijdrage. Allemaal om Europa als we weer thuis zijn de schuld te kunnen geven van het gebrek aan efficiëntie en te laten zien hoe hard we gevochten hebben voor onze eigen belangen.

    Terug naar God. Het verwijzen naar één of twee religies in de Grondwet brengt een democratischer, efficiënter en transparanter Europa, de doelstelling van de Europese Conventie, geen stap dichterbij. Sterker nog, daarmee sluit je onherroepelijk een groot aantal mensen in Europa buiten. Arrogant, want fundamentele waarden zijn er in principe voor alle Europese burgers. En nog belangrijker: waar is het principe van scheiding van kerk en staat, de basis van de moderne democratie, gebleven? Ik weet nog wie er in het Europees Parlement om het hardst riepen dat islamitische landen een probleem vormen door een te sterke band tussen overheid en religie. Dat zijn dezelfde mensen die nu God in onze Grondwet willen opnemen, namelijk de conservatieve fractie in het Europees Parlement, waartoe ook het CDA behoort.

    Vrijheid en pluriformiteit dreigen hier ingeruild te worden voor het eigen ethisch gelijk, opgelegd aan andere bevolkingsgroepen of andere landen. Ik wil in geen geval een Europese Grondwet die de Nederlandse burgers inperkt of regels oplegt die geen meerwaarde of noodzaak hebben in het Europese domein.

    In Nederland kennen we wel een aantal gemeenschappelijke waarden. Zo is in artikel 1 van de Nederlandse Grondwet respect voor ieder individu, ongeacht ras, religie, levensovertuiging, geslacht of seksuele voorkeur verankerd. Ook de Europese Grondwet legt algemene waarden vast voor alle burgers. Het opnemen van één of twee specifieke godsdiensten in diezelfde Grondwet gaat lijnrecht tegen die gedachte in.

    Ieder individu in Europa heeft het recht op zijn eigen waarden en beginselen. God staat boven de wet. Een Europese Grondwet mag God niet verlagen tot de wet en daarmee de scheiding tussen kerk en staat aantasten.

    https://www.trouw.nl/home/god-heeft-geen-plaats-in-de-europese-grondwet~a9ea06a2/