VATICAN and HOLY SEE
Matthew 21: (KJV)
12 And Jesus went into the temple of God, and cast out all them that sold and bought in the temple, and overthrew the tables of the moneychangers, and the seats of them that sold doves,
13 And said unto them, It is written, My house shall be called the house of prayer; but ye have made it a den of thieves.
1 And I stood upon the sand of the sea, and saw a beast rise up out of the sea, having seven heads and ten horns, and upon his horns ten crowns, and upon his heads the name of blasphemy.
THE HOLY SEE
Vatican City State
CODE OF CANON LAW
SS. D. N. LEONIS PP. XIII
EXTINGUITUR CAPITULUM ECCLESIAE COLLEGIATAE
ET COLLEGIUM HIERONYMIANUM
IN URBE ERIGITUR*
Slavorum gentem, fidei ac pietatis laude nobilissimam, qua Decessores Nostri, per aetates omnes complexi sunt caritate, eadem Nos prosecuti perpetuo fuiraus inde ab exordio Pontificatus Nostri. Cuius quidem rei etsi praeclaro sunt argumento quae providenter huc usque egimus in religiosam eius populi securitatem dignitatemque; libet tamen, quoniam secundissime sese offert occasio, novum addere testimonium, quod benevolentiae Nostrae futuris etiam temporibus indicium extet ac veluti
Van de Slaven van het volk, de lof van de meest nobele van geloof en vroomheid, die onze voorgangers hebben gedaan, ze zijn in elke generatie, alle liefde voor een complex object, hetzelfde vanaf het allereerste begin van ons pontificaat, hebben we nagestreefd met een eeuwigdurend statuut fulrat. Er is inderdaad een religieus, zelfs als we vals hebben gehandeld voor zover zijn voorzienigheid we zijn in de dingen van dit argument, met een uitstekende veiligheid en waardigheid van het volk; toch behaagt het mij, voor de meest gunstige voor de gelegenheid waarvoor hij zichzelf aanbood, om een nieuwe getuige toe te voegen, dit is, dat zelfs in de komende tijd, een teken van de bestaansreden is en, als een herinnering, een belofte van Onze welwillendheid.
Fidei namque et christianae caritatis studium, sicut nationibus plerisque omnibus, ita Slavicae quoque id elapsis temporibus suasit ut, in hac Urbe Nostra catholici nominis principe, institutum aliquod conderent congruisque redditibus instruerent, popularibus videlicet excipiendis, qui Apostolorum exuvias veneraturi Romanum iter aggrederentur, quae quidem instituta Pontificibus Maximis, non auctoritate modo et consiliis firmare, sed munificis praeterea largitionibus provehere solemne semper fuit. Id autem, ut par erat, et Slavis contigit. Nam Hieronymi de Potomnia Ragusinae dioeceseos aliorumque piorum hominum e Dalmatia et Slavonia precibus obsecundans, Nicolaus V decessor Noster, per Bullam Piis fidelibus votis, datam die 21 aprilis anni MCDLIII, hospitium in Urbe condidit, quod S. Hieronymi Slavoniorum, deinceps etiam Illyricorum, ex veteri geographica appellatione, vocatum est; eo nimirum consilio, ut fideles pauperes, e Dalmatia, Histria, Chroatia, Slavonia, Bosnia et Hercegovina peregre advenientes exciperentur alerenturque.
Hospitium, piis catholicorum largitionibus, quas inter memoratu digna est quam Catharina Bosniensium regina testamento reliquit, brevi adeo crevit ut, non peregrinis modo excipiendis, verum etiam aegris curandis, laxatis aedibus, par esset; quod quidem geminum caritatis opus ut rite recteque perageretur, aedes ipsae bifariam divisae sunt, altera earum parte hospitio adtributa, altera nosocomio.
Quum vero ad supremum Apostolatus officium Sixtus V evectus esset, is, ob suam in Sanctum Hieronymum pietatom atque in Chroaticam nationem, ex qua ducebat originem, benevolentiam, primum Hieronyminianum templura, suum olim titulum, dum in minoribus esset, angustum illud quidem ac vetustate fatiscens, a fundamentis fere, aere dato, refecit, ornavit, omni supellectile instruxit; tum etiam ad Collegiatae honorem evexit, addito Capitulo, quod archipresbytero, canonicis senis quaternisque beneficiariis constaret.
Et sic quidem ad nostra fere tempora Institutum viguit. - Nunc porro, cum eorumdem temporum adiuncta mutata sint admodum, ob aucta inter nationes varias commercia, expeditiora itinera et ampliora ubique ad commeantium commodum praesidia, vix videtur aliquid adhuc inesse utilitatis huiusmodi hospitiis quae praeteritarum aetatum angustiae requirebant. E contra expostulare tempora persentiunt omnes ut, pravis ubique doctrinis gliscentibus atque hostium christiani nominis aucto ausu, ea multiplicentur subsidia quae et ad tuendam fidem valeant et ad adversariorum conatus, pro singularum regionum necessitate, retundendos. Ad quem finem
quum valde conferat ut delecti iuvenes, sacris ordinibus vel iam initiati vel opportune tempore initiandi, Romae, sub tutela
ac veluti in oculis Summorum Pontificum, ad virtutes sacerdotio dignas sacrasque disciplinas educentur, qui postea, in patriam remeantes, haustam ex ipso fonte apostolico doctrinam cum popularibus quisque suis communicent; optimum factu visum est, si antiqua peregrinorum hospitia in ecclesiastica iuvenum collegia mutarentur. Sic quidem actum de Romanis plerisque hospitiis ceterarum nationum: sic porro de Illyricorum Hieronymiano hospitio agi decretum est.
Enimvero hospitii moderatores, iam inde a saeculo XVI, senserunt quam e re foret si Hieronymianae Slavorum aedes non eo solum paterent, ut peregrinis receptui essent, verum etiam ut sacerdotes exciperent sacris disciplinis uberius excolendos soli deque pietate imbuendos. Quamobrem, anno MDXCVIII, a Clemente VIII decessore Nostro facultatem iam impetraverant, qua Hospitium in ecclesiasticum colle verteretur. Verum exortae difficultates quominus res pro votis expediretur impediverunt. Binis porro elapsis saeculis, negotium agi iterum coepit; ita tamen ut, incolumi peregrinorum hospitio, quae pars aedium xenodochio fuerat attributa, clericis deinceps destinaretur, redditibus etiam, qui satis essent, iisdem alendis concessis. Quod quidem consilium cuin Pius VI d. n. probasset, Litteris Apostolicis, datis die XXVII Februarii MDCCXC, Collegium chroaticum ad S. Hieronymi demum institutum est. Ast, quamvis illustrium virorum studia coeptis hisce faverent, elapso vix quinquennio, cum publicae perturbationes commorantibus
in Urbe securitatem non darent, Canonicis atque alumnis Roma abeuntibus, Collegium intercidit. Restituta postmodum pace, de restituendo etiam Collegio denuo ac saepius deliberatum est: idque demum cessit anno MDCCCLXIV, quum nempe iuvenes aliquot, qui philosophicis ac theologicis disciplinis darent operam, in Hieronymianas aedes excepti sunt, eorumque coetus a SS. Cyrillo et Methodio, Slavorum patronis, vocatus est. Attamen nec instituti huius usus ultra septennium constitit: anno siquidem MDCCCLXXI sublatura est. Neque demum feliciorem exitum habuit quod iterum anno MDCCCLXXXIV Collegium fundatum fuit, unis videlicet sacerdotibus destinatum, scientia penitius ac pietate excolendis.
Cuius quidem perficiendi consilii difficultas eo potior fuit, quod in Slavorum aedibus ad Hieronymi alius iampridem coetus iure legitimo obtineret, canonicorum scilicet, qui, ut superius relatum est, a Sixto V, per Constitutionem Sapientiam Sanctorum, datam kalendis augusti MDLXXXIX, institutus fuerat.
Nam, Sixto morte intercepto, institutum ab eo Hieronymianum Capitulum exiguos vix habuit redditus, qui ad vitara honeste alendam nequaquam sufficerent: quare iterum iterumque oportuit ut, Apostolicis indultis adhibitis, ex Hospitii fundis quaererentur, quae in Canonicorum victum diriberentur. Hinc imminuta Hospitii res, sublataque potestas restituti saepe adolescentium vel Sacerdotum Collegii servandi.
Nos igitur ut Collegium, quo dudum Romae esse exopta vinius, demum sit eique firmius, quam elapsis aetatibus, certiusque fundamentum constituamus, collatis consiliis cum gentis Chroaticae Episcopis, quorum intererat, ad maiorem Omnipotentis Dei gloriam, ad catholicae religionis incrementum, ad dilectissimae Nobis eiusdem gentis decus et utilitatem, Constitutionibus decessorum Nostrorum Nicolai V et Sixti V auctoritate Apostolica derogantes: Hospitium S. Hieronymi nec non Capitulum collegiatae ecclesiae eiusdem S. Hieronymi, quod huc usque Illyricorum vocatum est, hisce Nostris litteris supprimimus et suppressa declaramus. Volumus interea ut Canonici, quibus aliter per peculiare indultum provisum nondum est quique adhuc in templo sacris dant operam, quidquid, praebendae titulo, accipere ante hoc tempus solebant, accipere in posterum pergant, donec ratione alia providebuntur. Loco vero Hospitii et Capituli praedictorum, Collegium Hieronymianum pro Chroatica gente, sub Nostra Auctoritate et tutela, fundamus et constituimus; eidemque sic a Nobis fundato et constituto bona universa et quoscumque redditus, nomina et census ad praedictum Hospitium et Capitulum quomodolibet pertinentia in perpetuum damus et attribuimus. Ea tamen dandi attribuendi lex esto, ut Capituli
etiam obligationes, turn quoad divini Officii recitationem, tum quoad Sacra ex piorum fundatorum voluntate statis diebus peragenda, totum denique divinum cultum in templo Hieronymiano persolvendum, ad Collegium eiusdemque moderatores illico transferantur; quorum propterea moderatorum conscientiam oneramus, ut quae omnia antehac a Capitulo flebant, eadem deinceps a Collegio fiant, iis quidem exceptis, quae forte inflectenda ad aequitatem, Nostro tamen consensu, prudentia suaserit.
Quo vero in tanti momenti re rite recteque procedatur, leges, quae subscribuntur, Collegio regundo moderando edimus. Cetera, quae vel pietatis officia, vel rationem studiorum, vel domesticam disciplinam et ordinem diurnum spectant, Cardinali Collegii Patrono statuenda permittimus.
LEGES COLLEGII HIERONYMIANI PRO CHROATICA
GENTE IN VRBE
I. Hieronymianum Collegium modo quidem sacerdotibus alumnis excipiendis pateat, qui ortu ac sermone ad chroaticam gentem pertineant quique, studiorum curriculo, in dioecesano seminario vel in Lyceo aliquo theologico, exacto, idonei censeantur ad ampliora studia pontificii praesertim iuris tum etiam ceterarum sacrarum disciplinarum, prouti suus cuique Episcopus designant.
Ut vero primum per tempus auctosque proventus licebit, adolescentibus patere volumus, qui sacerdotium suscepturi, disciplinis sacris dent operam.
II. Collegii unus e S. R. E. Cardinalibus Patronus esto, quem Pontifex Maximus destinabit.
III. Collegio moderando tres praeerunt delecti viri, prudentia vitaeque integritate spectati.
Horum alter, Rectoris titulo, suprema in Collegio auctoritate potietur; alter, rectoris vice, quae ille mandant, curabit reique econonomicae administrandae praeerit; tertius magisterio spiritus fungetur, eique demandabitur cura Hieronymiani templi sacrasque in eo caeremonias omnes ordinandi.
IV. Rectorem eligendi Summi Pontificis ius esto, nulla originis vel patriae ratione habita.
Alterum vero a Rectore et conscientiae magistrum Cardinalis Patronus nominet, audito Rectore.
V. Praeter habitationem et victum aliaque ad vitae usum necessaria, Rector tria millia libellarum italicarum quotannis a Collegio accipiet; vicerector vero et conscientiae moderator mille et octingentas.
VI. Iidem titulo Canonicorum ad honorem Collegiatae ecclesiae S. Hieronymi fruantur ; ita tamen ut eodem careant statim ac munere amoti fuerint vel quod officio desint vel gravibus aliis de causis.
VII. Patrimonii totius administratio penes Consilium in id designatum erit. Consilium vero quinque viris constabit; id est Collegii Rectore, qui et praeses erit, aliisque duobus moderatoribus, duobus praeterea a Cardinali Patrono electis.
VIII. Sacerdotes alumnos in Collegium cooptandi ius omne Cardinalis Patroni esto. Nullus autem cooptetur nisi praestanti ingenio integrisque moribus et ab Episcopo Ordinario propositus et commendatus. Eiusdem porro Cardinalis Patroni alumnos dimittendi potestas erit, si quem, moderatoribus auditis, disciplinae impatientem vel legum immemorem cognorit.
IX. Sacerdotes alumnos in Collegium mittendi ius habeant : Archiepiscopus Zagrabiensis, Episcopi Sirmiensis, Seniensis et Crisiensis, graeci ritus unitorum.
Item Archiepiscopus Iadertinus; Episcopi Rhagusinus, Spalatensis, Sebenicensis, Pharensis et Catharensis.
Item Episcopi Veglensis, Tergestinus, Parentinus.
Item Archiepiscopus Vrhbosnensis; Episcopi Mandetriensis, Tribuniensis, Banialucensis.
Postremo Archiepiscopus Antibarensis.
X. Tot in Collegium alumni cooptentur, quot ex instituti reditibus ali queant. In cooptandis vero sic dioecesium singularum amplitudinis ac necessitatis ratio habeant, ut nulla prae alia potiore iure frui videatur.
XL Alumni triennio vel saltem biennio in Collegio manebunt, iisque disciplinis operam dabunt, quarum peritia, Ordinarii iudicio, utiliores dioecesi suae eveniant.
Episcopis Croatiae, in quorum dioecesibus palaeoslavicae linguae in sacra liturgia est usus, ius manet integrum sacerdotibus, quos Romam mittunt, iniungendi ut palaeoslavice discant litterasque glagoliticas probe norint.
Haec de Collegio Hieronymiano Chroaticae gentis in Urbe statuimus, decernimus. Restat, ut sacerdotes alumni in illud cooptandi delatum a Deo beneficium pro merito aestiment et virtutum scientiaeque adipiscendae studio spem Nostram suorumque Episcoporum cumulate impleant.
Volumus presentes litteras firmas, validas et efficaces existere ac fore, suosque plenarios et integros effectus sortiri atquc obtinore, illisque ad quos spectat et in futurum spectabit in omnibus et per omnia plenissime suffragari; sicque in praemissis per quoscumque iudices ordinaries et delegates iudicari atque definiri debere, atque irritum et inane si secus super his a quoquam quavis auctoritate scienter vel ignoranter contigerit attentari. Non obstantibus Nostra et Cancellariae Apostolicae regula de iure quaesito non tollendo,
aliisque Constitutionibus et ordinationibus Apostolicis, ceterisque contrariis quibuscumque.
Datum Romae apud S. Petrum sub anulo Piscatoris, die I Augusti MCMI, Pontificatus Nostri anno vicesimo quarto.
*AAS, vol. XXXIV (1901-1902), pp. 196-201.
ERIC JON PHELPS
17 And that no man might buy or sell, save he that had the mark, or the name of the beast, or the number of his name.
18 Here is wisdom. Let him that hath understanding count the number of the beast: for it is the number of a man; and his number is Six hundred threescore and six.
ENCYCLICAL OF POPE LEO XIII
ON CHRISTIANS AS CITIZENS
To the Patriarchs, Primates, Archbishops, and
Bishops of the Catholic world in Grace and
Communion with the Apostolic See.
11. Wherefore, to love both countries, that of earth below and that of heaven above, yet in such mode that the love of our heavenly surpass the love of our earthly home, and that human laws be never set above the divine law, is the essential duty of Christians, and the fountainhead, so to say, from which all other duties spring.
One God, One Faith, One Spiritual Authority
Pope Boniface VIII - 1302
Bull of Pope Boniface VIII promulgated November 18, 1.302 Urged by faith, we are obliged to believe and to maintain that the Church is one, holy, catholic, and also apostolic. We believe in her firmly and we confess with simplicity that outside of her there is neither salvation nor the remission of sins, as the Spouse in the Canticles [Sgs 6:8] proclaims: ‘One is my dove, my perfect one. She is the only one, the chosen of her who bore her,‘ and she represents one sole mystical body whose Head is Christ and the head of Christ is God [1 Cor 11:3]. In her then is one Lord, one faith, one baptism [Eph 4:5]. There had been at the time of the deluge only one ark of Noah, prefiguring the one Church, which ark, having been finished to a single cubit, had only one pilot and guide, i.e., Noah, and we read that, outside of this ark, all that subsisted on the earth was destroyed.
We venerate this Church as one, the Lord having said by the mouth of the prophet: ‘Deliver, O God, my soul from the sword and my only one from the hand of the dog.’ [Ps 21:20] He has prayed for his soul, that is for himself, heart and body; and this body, that is to say, the Church, He has called one because of the unity of the Spouse, of the faith, of the sacraments, and of the charity of the Church. This is the tunic of the Lord, the seamless tunic, which was not rent but which was cast by lot [Jn 19:23- 24]. Therefore, of the one and only Church there is one body and one head, not two heads like a monster; that is, Christ and the Vicar of Christ, Peter and the successor of Peter, since the Lord speaking to Peter Himself said: ‘Feed my sheep‘ [Jn 21:17], meaning, my sheep in general, not these, nor those in particular, whence we understand that He entrusted all to him [Peter]. Therefore, if the Greeks or others should say that they are not confided to Peter and to his successors, they must confess not being the sheep of Christ, since Our Lord says in John ‘there is one sheepfold and one shepherd.’ We are informed by the texts of the gospels that in this Church and in its power are two swords; namely, the spiritual and the temporal. For when the Apostles say: ‘Behold, here are two swords‘ [Lk 22:38] that is to say, in the Church, since the Apostles were speaking, the Lord did not reply that there were too many, but sufficient. Certainly the one who denies that the temporal sword is in the power of Peter has not listened well to the word of the Lord commanding: ‘Put up thy sword into thy scabbard‘ [Mt 26:52]. Both, therefore, are in the power of the Church, that is to say, the spiritual and the material sword, but the former is to be administered for the Church but the latter by the Church; the former in the hands of the priest; the latter by the hands of kings and soldiers, but at the will and sufferance of the priest.
However, one sword ought to be subordinated to the other and temporal authority, subjected to spiritual power. For since the Apostle said: ‘There is no power except from God and the things that are, are ordained of God‘ [Rom 13:1-2], but they would not be ordained if one sword were not subordinated to the other and if the inferior one, as it were, were not led upwards by the other.
For, according to the Blessed Dionysius, it is a law of the divinity that the lowest things reach the highest place by intermediaries. Then, according to the order of the universe, all things are not led back to order equally and immediately, but the lowest by the intermediary, and the inferior by the superior. Hence we must recognize the more clearly that spiritual power surpasses in dignity and in nobility any temporal power whatever, as spiritual things surpass the temporal. This we see very clearly also by the payment, benediction, and consecration of the tithes, but the acceptance of power itself and by the government even of things. For with truth as our witness, it belongs to spiritual power to establish the terrestrial power and to pass judgement if it has not been good. Thus is accomplished the prophecy of Jeremias concerning the Church and the ecclesiastical power: ‘Behold to-day I have placed you over nations, and over kingdoms‘ and the rest. Therefore, if the terrestrial power err, it will be judged by the spiritual power; but if a minor spiritual power err, it will be judged by a superior spiritual power; but if the highest power of all err, it can be judged only by God, and not by man, according to the testimony of the Apostle: ‘The spiritual man judgeth of all things and he himself is judged by no man‘ [1 Cor 2:15]. This authority, however, (though it has been given to man and is exercised by man), is not human but rather divine, granted to Peter by a divine word and reaffirmed to him (Peter) and his successors by the One Whom Peter confessed, the Lord saying to Peter himself, ‘Whatsoever you shall bind on earth, shall be bound also in Heaven‘ etc., [Mt 16:19]. Therefore whoever resists this power thus ordained by God, resists the ordinance of God [Rom 13:2], unless he invent like Manicheus two beginnings, which is false and judged by us heretical, since according to the testimony of Moses, it is not in the beginnings but in the beginning that God created heaven and earth [Gen 1:1]. Furthermore, we declare, we proclaim, we define that it is absolutely necessary for salvation that every human creature be subject to the Roman Pontiff.
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fascism symbols in the house of congress
Pope Francis addresses a joint session of Congress on September 24, 2014 Washington, D.C.
The Pope is the first leader of the Roman Catholic Church to address a joint meeting of Congress,
including more than 500 lawmakers, Supreme Court justices and top administration officials
including Vice President Joe Biden. (Jim Watson/AFP)
Pope Francis appealed to U.S. lawmakers Thursday to help the poor, do more for suffering migrants around the world and fight climate change, pressing some of his trademark battles in a historic speech to Congress.
A day after meeting with President Barack Obama and enjoying a rapturous welcome from thousands of people on the streets of Washington, Pope Francis became the first pontiff to address a joint session of the Senate and the House of Representatives.
Three crisp raps of the gavel from the podium announced the arrival of Pope Francis, who wore flowing white vestments as he strode down to the front of the chamber to applause and a standing ovation.
He triggered another round of clapping from the hundreds of lawmakers, Supreme Court justices, Cabinet members and Vice President Joe Biden by saying it was an honor to be in “the land of the free and the home of the brave.”
Francis spoke heavily accented English in a wide-ranging speech interrupted often by applause from his U.S. hosts as he touched on social, financial and humanitarian issues.
The 78-year-old pope addressed one of the ugliest and most tragic crises of the day — the relentless flow into Europe of Africans, Afghans and people from the Middle East, mainly Syrians fleeing their country’s ruinous war.
“Our world is facing a refugee crisis of a magnitude not seen since the Second World War,” he said.
But the Argentine-born pontiff also spoke of the plight of poor Central Americans and Mexicans who make dangerous, often deadly treks across the Mexican border into the United States, into states like California and Arizona.
In both cases, he said, all people want is an opportunity for a better life.
“We must not be taken aback by their numbers, but rather view them as persons, seeing their faces and listening to their stories, trying to respond as best we can to their situation,” he said. “To respond in a way which is always humane, just and fraternal.”
To some extent, the Pope was speaking to deaf ears in addressing the U.S. immigration plight.
Despite pushes from Obama, the Republican-controlled Congress has failed to approve a sweeping reform that would have helped the estimated 11 million people, mostly Latinos, living in the United States without residency papers to gain legal status.
Many Republicans say the first priority should be securing the U.S. border.
Watch Pope Francis’ historic speech to the U.S. Congress here:
‘Make a difference’
On climate change, the pope alluded to his recent encyclical in which he denounced global warming as a woe caused by mankind. Here, lawmakers gave him another strong round of applause.
“I am convinced that we can make a difference, I’m sure, and I have no doubt that the United States — and this Congress — have an important role to play. Now is the time for courageous actions and strategies,” the pope said.
A major global climate conference is scheduled for December in Paris. The goal — elusive in several previous such gatherings as rich polluters like the U.S. and developing ones like Brazil and China failed to reach agreement — is to strike a deal to cut greenhouse gas emissions blamed for global warming.
On other issues, the pope called for a worldwide end to the death penalty — the U.S. is one of the few countries that still practice it — and denounced the arms trade as being fueled by hunger for “money that is drenched in blood.”
The pope also expressed concern over the fate of families, which he said are threatened like never before.
In particular, young people facing economic despair and other problems are discouraged from having kids, and others are so rich that starting a family is a distraction, he said.
After his speech, the pope stepped out onto a balcony overlooking the National Mall and greeted tens of thousands of cheering well-wishers down below.
He switched to Spanish — “buenos días,” he said, eliciting a roar of approval — and asked God to bless the crowd. He also asked any non-believers or people who perhaps cannot pray “to send good wishes my way.”
“Thank you very much and God Bless America!” he concluded in English.
The scene of multitudes mirrored that of Wednesday, when wildly happy crowds on the streets of Washington screamed and waved to the pope as he drove by in his open-sided pope-mobile.
The pope was to leave Washington later Thursday for New York, where he will address the United Nations on Friday.
He wraps up his historic six-day U.S. trip Saturday and Sunday in Philadelphia at an international festival of Catholic families.
Pope Francis makes a law..
destroys every Corporation in the world
The Vatican created a world trust using the birth certificate to capture the value of each individual’s future productive energy. Each state, province and country in the fiat monetary system, contributes their people’s value to this world trust identified by the SS, SIN or EIN numbers (for example) maintained in the Vatican registry. Corporations worldwide (individuals became corporate fictions through their birth certificate) are connected to the Vatican through law (Vatican to Crown to BAR to laws to judge to people) and through money (Vatican birth accounts value to IMF to Treasury (Federal Reserve) to banks to people (loans) to judges (administration) and sheriffs (confiscation).
Judges administer the birth trust account in court matters favoring the court and the banks, acting as the presumed “beneficiary” since they have not properly advised the “true beneficiary” of their own trust. Judges, attorneys, bankers, lawmakers, law enforcement and all public officials (servants) are now held personally liable for their confiscation of true beneficiary’s homes, cars, money and assets; false imprisonment, deception, harassment, and conversion of the true beneficiary’s trust funds.The Vatican created a world trust using the birth certificate to capture the value of each individual’s future productive energy. Each state, province and country in the fiat monetary system, contributes their people’s value to this world trust identified by the SS, SIN or EIN numbers (for example) maintained in the Vatican registry. Corporations worldwide (individuals became corporate fictions through their birth certificate) are connected to the Vatican through law (Vatican to Crown to BAR to laws to judge to people) and through money (Vatican birth accounts value to IMF to Treasury (Federal Reserve) to banks to people (loans) to judges (administration) and sheriffs (confiscation).
Judges administer the birth trust account in court matters favoring the court and the banks, acting as the presumed “beneficiary” since they have not properly advised the “true beneficiary” of their own trust. Judges, attorneys, bankers, lawmakers, law enforcement and all public officials (servants) are now held personally liable for their confiscation of true beneficiary’s homes, cars, money and assets; false imprisonment, deception, harassment, and conversion of the true beneficiary’s trust funds.
The Importance of Motu Propria by Pope Francis
According to the New Advent Catholic Encyclopedia, Motu Propria in Latin stands for “of his own accord” and is the name given to an official decree by a Pope personally in his capacity and office as supreme sovereign pontiff and not in his capacity as the apostolic leader and teacher of the Universal Church. To put it more bluntly, a Motu Propria is the highest form of legal instrument on the planet in accordance to its provenance, influence and structure to the Western-Roman world, over riding anything that could be issued by the United Nations, the Inner and Middle Temple, the Crown of Great Britain or any other Monarch and indeed by any head of state or body politic. If you are a member of the United Nations, or recognized by the United States or the United Kingdom or have a bank account anywhere on the planet, then a Motu Propria is the highest legal instrument, no question.
In the case of the Motu Propria issued by Pope Francis on July 11th 2013, it is an instrument of several functions and layers.
In the first instance, it may be legally construed to apply to the local matters of the administration of the Holy See.
In the second instance, the document relates to the fact that the Holy See is the underpinning to the whole global system of law, therefore anyone holding an office anywhere in the world is also subject to these limits and that immunity no longer applies….
[In eerste instantie kan het juridisch worden uitgelegd als van toepassing op de lokale aangelegenheden van het bestuur van de Heilige Stoel.
In het tweede geval heeft het document betrekking op het feit dat de Heilige Stoel de basis vormt voor het hele mondiale rechtsstelsel, daarom is iedereen die een ambt waar ook ter wereld heeft ook onderhevig aan deze beperkingen en is immuniteit niet langer van toepassing .... ] (Friday, July 24, 2015)
The Antichrist Reveals Himself
VAN HET HOOGSTE PONTIFF
OVER DE JURISDICTIE VAN DE GERECHTELIJKE AUTORITEITEN VAN DE VATICAANSTADSTAAT
In onze tijd wordt het algemeen welzijn steeds meer bedreigd door transnationale misdaad, het oneigenlijke gebruik van terrorisme.
Het is daarom noodzakelijk dat de internationale gemeenschap adequate juridische instrumenten aanneemt om criminele activiteiten te voorkomen en tegen te gaan door de internationale justitiële samenwerking in strafzaken te bevorderen.
Door het ratificeren van talloze internationale conventies in deze gebieden, en ook namens de Vaticaanse stadstaat, de Heilige Stoel.
Met het oog op het hernieuwen van de verplichting van de Apostolische Stoel om aan deze doeleinden samen te werken, stel ik met behulp van deze Apostolische Brief, Motu Proprio, vast dat:
1. De bevoegde gerechtelijke autoriteiten van Vaticaanstad oefenen tevens rechtsmacht uit over:
a) misdaden begaan tegen de veiligheid, de fundamentele belangen of het erfgoed van de Heilige Stoel;
b) genoemde misdrijven:
- in Vaticaanstad, wet nr. VIII, of 11 juli 2013, met aanvullende normen inzake strafrechtzaken;
- in Vaticaanstad, wet nr. IX, of 11 juli 2013, met wijzigingen van het strafwetboek en het wetboek van strafvordering;
wanneer dergelijke misdaden worden gepleegd door de in het derde lid hieronder genoemde personen bij de uitoefening van hun functies;
c) elk ander misdrijf waarvan vervolging is vereist door een internationale overeenkomst die door de Heilige Stoel is geratificeerd, indien de dader fysiek aanwezig is op het grondgebied van Vaticaanstad en niet is uitgeleverd.
2. De misdrijven bedoeld in het eerste lid moeten worden beoordeeld op basis van het strafrecht dat van kracht is in Vaticaanstad op het moment van hun opdracht, onverminderd de algemene regels voor de toepassing van het strafrecht.
a) leden, ambtenaren en personeel van de verschillende organen van de Romeinse curie en van de daarmee verbonden instellingen.
b) pauselijke afgevaardigden en diplomatiek personeel van de Heilige Stoel.
c) personen die als vertegenwoordigers, managers of directeuren optreden, alsmede personen die de facto het beheer of de uitoefening van zeggenschap uitoefenen over de entiteiten die rechtstreeks in de provincie Vaticaanstad gevestigd zijn;
d) elke andere persoon die een administratief of gerechtelijk mandaat heeft in de Heilige Stoel, permanent of tijdelijk, betaald of onbetaald, ongeacht of de anciënniteit van die persoon.
4. De in lid 1 bedoelde rechtsmacht omvat ook de administratieve aansprakelijkheid van rechtspersonen die voortkomen uit misdrijven, zoals geregeld door de wetgeving van Vaticaanstad.
5. Wanneer dezelfde aangelegenheden in andere staten worden vervolgd, zijn de bepalingen van kracht die van toepassing zijn in Vaticaanstad op de jurisdictie van concurrenten.
6. De inhoud van artikel 23 van wet nr. CXIX of 21 november 1987, die de rechterlijke orde van Vaticaanstad goedkeurt, blijft van kracht.
Dit besluit ik en stel vast, ondanks alles integendeel.
Ik stel vast dat deze apostolische brief is afgegeven. Motu Proprio zal worden gepubliceerd door de publicatie ervan op L'Osservatore Romano, die op 1 september 2013 in werking treedt.
Gegeven in Rome, in het Apostolisch Paleis, op 11 juli 2013, de eerste van mijn Pontificaat.
ISSUED MOTU PROPRIO
OF THE SUPREME PONTIFF
ON THE JURISDICTION OF JUDICIAL AUTHORITIES OF VATICAN CITY STATE
IN CRIMINAL MATTERS
In our times, the common good is increasingly threatened by transnational organized crime, the improper use of the markets and of the economy, as well as by terrorism.
It is therefore necessary for the international community to adopt adequate legal instruments to prevent and counter criminal activities, by promoting international judicial cooperation on criminal matters.
In ratifying numerous international conventions in these areas, and acting also on behalf of Vatican City State, the Holy See has constantly maintained that such agreements are effective means to prevent criminal activities that threaten human dignity, the common good and peace.
With a view to renewing the Apostolic See’s commitment to cooperate to these ends, by means of this Apostolic Letter issued Motu Proprio, I establish that:
1. The competent Judicial Authorities of Vatican City State shall also exercise penal jurisdiction over:
a) crimes committed against the security, the fundamental interests or the patrimony of the Holy See;
b) crimes referred to:
- in Vatican City State Law No. VIII, of 11 July 2013, containing Supplementary Norms on Criminal Law Matters;
- in Vatican City State Law No. IX, of 11 July 2013, containing Amendments to the Criminal Code and the Criminal Procedure Code;
when such crimes are committed by the persons referred to in paragraph 3 below, in the exercise of their functions;
c) any other crime whose prosecution is required by an international agreement ratified by the Holy See, if the perpetrator is physically present in the territory of Vatican City State and has not been extradited.
2. The crimes referred to in paragraph 1 are to be judged pursuant to the criminal law in force in Vatican City State at the time of their commission, without prejudice to the general principles of the legal system on the temporal application of criminal laws.
3. For the purposes of Vatican criminal law, the following persons are deemed “public officials”:
a) members, officials and personnel of the various organs of the Roman Curia and of the Institutions connected to it.
b) papal legates and diplomatic personnel of the Holy See.
c) those persons who serve as representatives, managers or directors, as well as persons who even de facto manage or exercise control over the entities directly dependent on the Holy See and listed in the registry of canonical juridical persons kept by the Governorate of Vatican City State;
d) any other person holding an administrative or judicial mandate in the Holy See, permanent or temporary, paid or unpaid, irrespective of that person’s seniority.
4. The jurisdiction referred to in paragraph 1 comprises also the administrative liability of juridical persons arising from crimes, as regulated by Vatican City State laws.
5. When the same matters are prosecuted in other States, the provisions in force in Vatican City State on concurrent jurisdiction shall apply.
6. The content of article 23 of Law No. CXIX of 21 November 1987, which approves the Judicial Order of Vatican City State remains in force.
This I decide and establish, anything to the contrary notwithstanding.
I establish that this Apostolic Letter issued Motu Proprio will be promulgated by its publication in L’Osservatore Romano, entering into force on 1 September 2013.
Given in Rome, at the Apostolic Palace, on 11 July 2013, the first of my Pontificate.
© Copyright - Libreria Editrice Vaticana
Pope Francis addresses Joint Session of Congress – FULL SPEECH (C-SPAN)
Source: https://youtu.be/oBM7DIeMsP0 (C-SPAN Gepubliceerd op 24 sep. 2015)
Pope Francis in the USA - Visit to the United Nations
VATICAN USES NO DATE OF BIRTH
WHY SHOULD WE?
Let me tell you
PETER is NOT the first Pope.
What is CAPITIS DIMINUTIO?
In Roman law, A diminishing or abridgment of personality. Tills was a loss or curtailment of a man's status or aggregate of legal attributes and qualifications, following upon certain changes in his civil condition. It was of three kinds, enumerated as follows: Capitis diminutio maxima. The highest or most comprehensive loss of status. This occurred when a man's condition was changed from one of freedom to one of bondage, when he became a slave. It swept away with it all rights of citizenship and all family rights. Capitis diminutio media. A lesser or medium loss of status. This occurred where a man lost his rights of citizenship, but without losing his liberty. It carried away also the family rights. Capitis diminutio minima. Tile lowest or least comprehensive degree of loss of status. This occurred where a man's family relations alone were changed. It happened upon the arrogation of a person who had been his own master, (sui juris,) or upon the emancipation of one who had been under the patria potestas. It left the rights of liberty and citizenship unaltered. See Inst. 1, 1G, pr.; 1, 2, 3; Dig. 4, 5, 11; Mackeld. Rom. Law.
What is ROMAN LAW?
This term, in a general sense, comprehends all the laws (alle wetten) which pre- vailed among the Romans, without regard to the time of their origin, including the col- lections of Justinian. In a more restricted sense, the Germans understand by this term merely the law of Justinian, as adopted by them. Mackeld. Rom. Law,
( 483–565 ) , Byzantine emperor 527–565; Latin name Flavius Petrus Sabbatius Justinianus . He regained North Africa from the Vandals, Italy from the Ostrogoths, and Spain from the Visigoths. He codified (gecodificeerd) Roman law 529.
Just like any other state in the world, Vatican is a center of business activities that contribute greatly to its economy. Vatican City is the only independent state in the world within another city and Rome itself is a beehive of business activities.
They claim that they are the moral political sovereignty.
The Holy See, also referred to as the See of Rome, is the ecclesiastical jurisdiction of the Catholic Church in Rome, the episcopal see of the Pope, and an independent sovereign entity.
refers to the Pope as "Our Lord God the Pope."
This ancient Catholic document, Extravagantes Johannes, refers to the Pope as "Our Lord God the Pope.
Here's a closeup of the same document, as printed in 1543.
[Contrarium videtur.] Christus commissit summo Pontifici vices suas, (ut habetur Matth. 16. cap. et 24. q I. quodcumque.) Sed Christo data erat omnis potestas in caelo et in terra (Matth. 28.) ergo summus Pontifex qui est ejus vicarius habebit hanc potestatem. extra de translat. cap. quanto.
Here's the english translation:
Christ entrusted his office to the chief Pontiff; (Mat 16:18, Mat 24:45) but all power in heaven and in earth had been given to Christ; (Mat. 28:18) therefore the chief Pontiff, who is his vicar, will have this power. [Extravagantes, Decretal. Greg. IX. de Transl. lib. i. tit. 7. c. 3. 'Quanto personam,' Pope Innocent III.
(in the Church of England) an incumbent of a parish where tithes formerly passed to a chapter or religious house or layperson.
(in other Anglican Churches) a member of the clergy deputizing for another.synonyms:minister, rector, priest, parson, minister of religion, clergyman, clergywoman, cleric, churchman, churchwoman, ecclesiastic, pastor, father, man/woman of the cloth, man/woman of god, curate, chaplain, curé, presbyter, preacher, lay preacher, evangelist, divine; More
(in the Roman Catholic Church) a representative or deputy of a bishop.
It is under the supervision of the Holy See the “Vatican” since 1815.
Relations between the Netherlands and Vatican City, the residence of the Pope, are good. Politically and culturally speaking, the Vatican is not unimportant for the Netherlands. Relations are based on efforts to promote world peace.
News item | 20-11-2013 | 10:23
In 2015, the Netherlands and the Holy See celebrate 200 years of diplomatic relations.
The Holy See is recognised as a major player in international diplomacy. The Vatican can be instrumental in persuading countries to act on matters of importance to the Netherlands. These include certain aspects of sexual and reproductive health and rights and human rights as well as issues relating to poverty reduction, raw materials, energy and climate.
In the recent past, contacts between the Netherlands and the Vatican regularly revolved around questions such as abortion, assisted suicide and new marriage legislation: subjects on which the Netherlands and the Vatican hold conflicting views.
The Netherlands is represented to the Holy See by an ambassador. In The Hague, the diplomatic interests of the Holy See are looked after by a papal nuncio.
There is a great deal of interest in the Vatican’s art treasures. Dutch museums and archives regularly apply for the loan of works of art for exhibitions.
Up-to-date information on bilateral treaties can be found in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs Treaty Database.
Corporations are Persons in Law and they are DEAD and you as a (Judge/Lawyer) are acting as a PERSON (DEAD) in law.
Under Eugenics, You are a ‘Human Resource’ Slave to the New World Order:
Under the eugenics world government system, individual human beings are literally considered to be “human resources” to be planned and manipulated under a planned economy with total control over your health care, employment, housing, food and reproduction… yet somehow government officials tell us that this is “freedom.”
In the 1984 sense of the matter, this kind of “freedom” really is slavery to a system where the State believes it is God.
The idea of a modern project of improving the human population through a statistical understanding of heredity used to encourage good breeding was originally developed by Francis Galton and, initially, was closely linked to Darwinism and his theory of natural selection. Galton had read his half-cousin Charles Darwin's theory of evolution, which sought to explain the development of plant and animal species, and desired to apply it to humans. Based on his biographical studies, Galton believed that desirable human qualities were hereditary traits, though Darwin strongly disagreed with this elaboration of his theory. In 1883, one year after Darwin's death, Galton gave his research a name: eugenics.
Statute Law Revision and Civil Procedure Act 1883
The right of people to self-determination is a cardinal principle in modern international law (commonly regarded as a jus cogens rule),
binding, as such, on the United Nations as authoritative interpretation of the Charter's norms. It states that a people, based on respect for the principle of equal rights and fair equality of opportunity, have the right to freely choose their sovereignty and international political status with no interference.
De definitie die Wikipedia geeft van een natuurlijk persoon:
Een natuurlijk persoon is (per definitie een mens van vlees en bloed/verzonnen), met een identiteit (naam en), afstamming (al dan niet bekend of puur juridisch), geboorteplaats en -datum en als het enigszins kan ook -tijdstip, geslacht en nationaliteit. Om die juridische erkenning te verwerven wordt in Nederland een geboorteakte opgemaakt in een gemeentelijk register. Het begrip natuurlijk persoon benadert de mens dus niet als een biologische entiteit maar als een juridische. Zelfs voor een vondeling moet een constructie opgezet worden om er een natuurlijk persoon van te maken.
Om die juridische erkenning te verwerven wordt in Nederland (en op de hele aarde) een geboorteakte opgemaakt in een gemeentelijk register. Het begrip natuurlijk persoon benadert de mens dus niet als een biologische entiteit maar als een juridische.
een mens, zelfstandig drager van rechten en plichten (YHWH’s Wetten en regels) in tegenstelling tot rechtspersonen (Menselijke verzonnen wetten en regels)
YHWH’s Laws vs man's Contract Law or Statutes
Een rechtspersoon is een organisatie of instelling die dezelfde juridische rechten en plichten heeft als een natuurlijk persoon. Een rechtspersoon kan hierdoor rechtszaken aanspannen of aangeklaagd worden, net als een natuurlijk persoon.
Een natuurlijk persoon is een mens die drager van rechten en verplichtingen kan zijn. (Volgens menselijke wetten en regels)
Het zijn van natuurlijk persoon eindigt met het overlijden.
De natuurlijke persoon is de tegenhanger van de rechtspersoon, een entiteit of organisatie die zelfstandig in het rechtsverkeer kan optreden.
Het begrip rechtssubject omvat beide.
Volgens artikel 6 van de Universele Verklaring van de Rechten van de Mens hebben alle mensen het recht om als (natuurlijke) persoon erkend te worden; staten mogen dus geen onderscheid maken tussen mensen die wel of geen persoon zijn.
Universele Verklaring van de Rechten van de Mens
Déclaration des Droits de l'Homme et du Citoyen, uit de Franse Revolutie.
De Universele Verklaring van de Rechten van de Mens (afgekort; UVRM) is een verklaring die is aangenomen door de Algemene Vergadering van de Verenigde Naties (A/RES/217, 10 december 1948), om de basisrechten van de mens, ook wel grondrechten, te omschrijven. De UVRM is tot op heden van grote betekenis als algemene morele en juridische standaard, als vaak gebruikte bron voor een nieuwe internationaal verdrag of een nationale grondwet, en als basis van het werk van mensenrechtenactivisten en -organisaties.
Belangrijke juridische standaard De UVRM is niet in strikte zin bindend. Maar volgens uitspraken van de VN-Commissie voor Internationaal Recht heeft een verklaring die door een groot aantal landen over langere tijd is aanvaard, een status die niet veel lager is dan die van een verdrag. Rechters hebben in verscheidene landen in verscheidene uitspraken naar de UVRM verwezen. (Baehr, 2000)
Bron van verdragen De UVRM is gebruikt als basis voor twee bindende VN-verdragen voor de mensenrechten, namelijk het internationaal verdrag inzake burgerrechten en politieke rechten en het internationaal verdrag inzake economische, sociale en culturele rechten. Ook het Europees Verdrag voor de Rechten van de Mens van 1950 is erop gebaseerd. Inmiddels hebben de VN op het gebied van mensenrechten zo’n driehonderd verdragen en (niet-bindende) verklaringen aangenomen. Zo kwam er in 1984 een verdrag tegen martelen, in 1989 een Verdrag inzake de rechten van het kind, in 2007 een verdrag tegen gedwongen verdwijning. Bij de meeste verdragen zijn toezichthoudende comités ingesteld.
Weerslag in grondwetten De UVRM heeft aantoonbaar invloed gehad, met vaak expliciete verwijzingen, op meer dan negentig grondwetten, waaronder ten minste negentien grondwetten van nieuwe staten die zich na 1948 (vooral in Afrika) vormden. (Morsink, 1999)
Mensenrechtenverdedigers De UVRM werd ook de grondslag van organisaties en activisten voor mensenrechten. De grootste hiervan is Amnesty International, met in 2008 meer dan 2,2 miljoen leden over de hele wereld. Andere van dergelijke organisaties zijn bijvoorbeeld Human Rights Watch en Aim for human rights. In bijna alle landen zijn verder plaatselijke comités voor mensenrechten actief. Mensenrechtenverdedigers zijn ook actief in staten die het internationaal verdrag inzake burgerrechten en politieke rechten niet hebben geratificeerd, zo’n vijftig landen. In die landen is de UVRM een belangrijke leidraad, omdat ze immers automatisch geldt voor alle lidstaten van de Verenigde Naties.
Niet alleen voor staten De UVRM richt zich niet alleen op staten, maar op individuen en 'organen’. Daaronder vallen bijvoorbeeld ook bedrijven. Volgens de UVRM moeten die organen 'ernaar streven door onderwijs en opvoeding' de mensenrechten te bevorderen en 'door vooruitstrevende maatregelen, op nationaal en internationaal terrein, deze rechten algemeen en daadwerkelijk te doen erkennen en toepassen'. Het gaat dus om een plicht tot zowel educatie als daadwerkelijke maatregelen.
Voortgaande bewustwording De UVRM wordt nog steeds aangehaald door wetenschappers, advocaten en grondwettelijke rechtbanken. Internationale rechters debatteren geregeld over de vraag of onderdelen van de verklaring overeenkomen met de gebruikelijke internationale wetgeving. De meningen zijn wereldwijd verdeeld over deze vraag, vanaf een enkel onderdeel tot aan de gehele verklaring. Vooral niet-westerse landen die ten tijde van het opstellen van de verklaring nog onder koloniaal bestuur stonden, hebben het universele karakter van de UVRM betwist.
Er wordt in de UVRM geen gewag gemaakt van de collectieve rechten. Zo’n collectief recht is bijvoorbeeld het zelfbeschikkingsrecht van volkeren. In het eerste artikel van beide VN-verdragen van 1966 is het recht op zelfbeschikking van volken wél opgenomen. Het is nu algemeen aanvaard dat een 'volk' zelfbeschikking kan verwerven, en zich af mag splitsen van een staat als het lang onder onderdrukking heeft geleden. Met een beroep op dat recht verklaarde Kosovo zich begin 2008 onafhankelijk van Servië.
Het recht op ontwikkeling staat evenmin in de UVRM, dit kwam pas later op. Het is in 1986 vastgelegd in een VN-verklaring. Volgens dat recht kunnen individuele mensen de nationale en internationale gemeenschap aanspreken op de verplichting om hen te vrijwaren voor absolute armoede.
Pas na de verschrikkingen van de Tweede Wereldoorlog vond verregaande internationalisering van de mensenrechten plaats. De oprichting van de Verenigde Naties met als doel de wereldvrede te handhaven werd al gauw gevolgd door de Universele Verklaring van de Rechten van de Mens (UVRM) in 1948. De beginselen van die verklaring werden bindend gemaakt in twee verdragen die de Verenigde Naties in 1966 aannamen, het Internationaal verdrag inzake burgerrechten en politieke rechten en het het Internationaal verdrag inzake economische, sociale en culturele rechten. Andere VN-mensenrechtenverdragen zijn het Genocideverdrag (1948), het Internationaal Verdrag inzake de uitbanning van elke vorm van rassendiscriminatie (1965), het Verdrag inzake de uitbanning van alle vormen van discriminatie van vrouwen (1979), het Verdrag tegen foltering en andere wrede, onmenselijke en onterende behandeling of bestraffing (1984), het Verdrag inzake de rechten van het kind (1989), het Verdrag voor bescherming van werkende migranten en hun familie (1990), de VN-conventie inzake rechten van personen met een handicap (2006) en het Internationaal Verdrag inzake de bescherming van alle personen tegen gedwongen verdwijning (2006).
Naast deze VN-verdragen bestaan er regionale mensenrechtenverdragen die voor een werelddeel gelden, waaronder het Europees Verdrag voor de Rechten van de Mens (EVRM). De naleving hiervan wordt bewaakt door het Europees Hof voor de Rechten van de Mens. Bepalingen uit verdragen die een ieder kunnen verbinden zijn voor de Nederlandse wet bindend via artikel 93 Grondwet.
World order is an international-relations term meaning "the distribution of power and authority among the political actors on the global stage."
PERSON = ACTOR
Prophet Ken Peters - I Saw the Great Tribulation (High Quality)
Beneficial ownership is a term used in international commercial legislation to refer to anyone who enjoys the benefits of ownership of a security or property, and yet does not nominally own the asset itself. Webster's defines a beneficial owner as "one who enjoys the benefit of a property of which another is the legal owner."
Economisch eigendom is een term die in het internationale handelsrecht wordt gebruikt om te verwijzen naar de eigenaar van het goed zelf. Webster's definieert een uiteindelijk gerechtigde als "iemand die het voordeel geniet van een eigendom waarvan een ander de juridische eigenaar is."
5 And he put down the idolatrous priests, whom the kings of Judah had ordained to burn incense in the high places in the cities of Judah, and in the places round about Jerusalem; them also that burned incense unto Baal, to the sun, and to the moon, and to the planets (there are NO PLANETS, and to all the host of heaven (fallen Angels and demons).
The Islamic-Vatican Connection by Walter Veith
8 Judah, thou art he whom thy brethren shall praise: thy hand shall be in the neck of thine enemies; thy father's children shall bow down before thee.
9 Judah is a lion's whelp: from the prey, my son, thou art gone up: he stooped down, he couched as a lion, and as an old lion; who shall rouse him up?
10 The sceptre shall not depart from Judah, nor a lawgiver from between his feet, until Shiloh come; and unto him shall the gathering of the people be.
11 Binding his foal unto the vine, and his ass's colt unto the choice vine; he washed his garments in wine, and his clothes in the blood of grapes:
12 His eyes shall be red with wine, and his teeth white with milk.
13 Zebulun shall dwell at the haven of the sea; and he shall be for an haven of ships; and his border shall be unto Zidon.
Putin- Defender of the Faith
Cestui Que Vie Act i.666
De Cestui Que Vie Act uit i.666 (ook wel bekend als : Proof of life act) door het Engelse parlement is de wet waarop de legale naam fraude en het “beest” slavernij systeem onder controle van het Vaticaan gebaseerd zijn.
Cestui Que Vie Act i.666
i.666 CHAPTER 11 18 and 19 Cha 2
An Act for Redresse of Inconveniencies by want of Proofe of the Deceases of Persons beyond the Seas or absenting themselves, upon whose Lives Estates doe depend.
Recital that Cestui que vies have gone beyond Sea, and that Reversioners cannot find out whether they are alive or dead.
Whereas diverse Lords of Mannours and others have granted Estates by Lease for one or more life or lives, or else for yeares determinable upon one or more life or lives And it hath often happened that such person or persons for whose life or lives such Estates have beene granted have gone beyond the Seas or soe absented themselves for many yeares that the Lessors and Reversioners cannot finde out whether such person or persons be alive or dead by reason whereof such Lessors and Reversioners have beene held out of possession of their Tenements for many yeares after all the lives upon which such Estates depend are dead in regard that the Lessors and Reversioners when they have brought Actions for the recovery of their Tenements have beene putt upon it to prove the death of their Tennants when it is almost impossible for them to discover the same, For remedy of which mischeife soe frequently happening to such Lessors or Reversioners.
[I.] Cestui que vie remaining beyond Sea for Seven Years together and no Proof of their Lives, Judge in Action to direct a Verdict as though Cestui que vie were dead.
If such person or persons for whose life or lives such Estates have beene or shall be granted as aforesaid shall remaine beyond the Seas or elsewhere absent themselves in this Realme by the space of seaven yeares together and noe sufficient and evident proofe be made of the lives of such person or persons respectively in any Action commenced for recovery of such Tenements by the Lessors or Reversioners in every such case the person or persons upon whose life or lives such Estate depended shall be accounted as naturally dead, And in every Action brought for the recovery of the said Tenements by the Lessors or Reversioners their Heires or Assignes, the Judges before whom such Action shall be brought shall direct the Jury to give their Verdict as if the person soe remaining beyond the Seas or otherwise absenting himselfe were dead.
II. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (repealed by Statute Law Revision Act 1948)
III. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (repealed by Statute Law Revision Act 1863)
IV If the supposed dead Man prove to be alive, then the Title is revested. Action for mean Profits with Interest.[Provided alwayes That if any person or [person or] persons shall be evicted out of any Lands or Tenements by vertue of this Act, and afterwards if such person or persons upon whose life or lives such Estate or Estates depend shall returne againe from beyond the Seas, or shall on proofe in any Action to be brought for recovery of the same [X3to] be made appeare to be liveing; or to have beene liveing at the time of the Eviction That then and from thenceforth the Tennant or Lessee who was outed of the same his or their Executors Administrators or Assignes shall or may reenter repossesse have hold and enjoy the said Lands or Tenements in his or their former Estate for and dureing the Life or Lives or soe long terme as the said person or persons upon whose Life or Lives the said Estate or Estates depend shall be liveing, and alsoe shall upon Action or Actions to be brought by him or them against the Lessors Reversioners or Tennants in possession or other persons respectively which since the time of the said Eviction received the Proffitts of the said Lands or Tenements recover for damages the full Proffitts of the said Lands or Tenements respectively with lawfull Interest for and from the time that he or they were outed of the said Lands or Tenements, and kepte or held out of the same by the said Lessors Reversioners Tennants or other persons who after the said Eviction received the Proffitts of the said Lands or Tenements or any of them respectively as well in the case when the said person or persons upon whose Life or Lives such Estate or Estates did depend are or shall be dead at the time of bringing of the said Action or Actions as if the said person or persons where then liveing.]
Another copy of that document. I have read that it is page 3 of a 4 page document. Does anyone have the entire thing?
Dear friends .....when you have time to look at and think about the attached files, they should connect dots to what Walter Veith video touches on, ... and why the election was stolen, ..... and why they are all so hell bent against trump ......They have to get rid of Trump .... This completely destroys the house of cards they built!
"WE" are the government .....all the money, so called money, the government owes ........is OWED TO US.
We don't owe anything to the government, the government owes us! ......We collectively, are the creditors .....We ARE NOT the debtors .......How crazy is it to take money from someone and then say: you owe me for the money I took from you?
The White House letter says that any business should let the person named have any product or service they offer for free, Then, the way the business gets paid is, it is allowed to get its money back by subtracting the cost from what it .......(the business)..... owes the government! ......Everything is credit ...it is ALL bookkeeping. Do you want me to pay you or just credit your account? That's what the White House letter says. The person does not have to pay the vendor. The vendor's account is given credit for what the person received .......i.e. ....The vendor, when it provides receipts to the government, the government makes a direct deposit to the vendors account. THE VENDOR'S ACCOUNT is credited by the government. The vendor is "paid"
The named individual has an account created by his birth certificate and his account is debited and the vendor's account is credited .....it is ALL bookkeeping THERE IS NO MONEY! .......Anna goes to work. .....her account is credited....direct deposit ......she got paid .....Anna can write a check against her account and the system will transfer credit out of her account (debit) into someone else account (credit) and they are paid There is no money ..... it's all bookkeeping.
The White House letter frees the person from the bookkeeping it puts all the bookkeeping on the vendor and the government. The government takes the money from the birth certificate account just as Anna's check would take the money from her account.
The world's elite (Vatican .. Queen...) live off the credit in the birth certificate accounts because the people do not know the account exists It is Satanic the bible says if you do not work, neither should you eat ......bankers get a free ride on the backs of others. .....DO you get this? Do you comprehend? Does it fit into your mind? Let me know if you understand.
Alive Yet Dead And Lost At Sea: The Cestui Que Vie Trust
ENCYCLICAL OF POPE LEO XIII
ON CHRISTIANS AS CITIZENS
To the Patriarchs, Primates, Archbishops, and
Bishops of the Catholic world in Grace and
Communion with the Apostolic See.
From day to day it becomes more and more evident how needful it is that the principles of Christian wisdom should ever be borne in mind, and that the life, the morals, and the institutions of nations should be wholly conformed to them. For, when these principles have been disregarded, evils so vast have accrued that no right-minded man can face the trials of the time being without grave anxiety or consider the future without alarm. Progress, not inconsiderable indeed, has been made towards securing the well-being of the body and of material things, but the material world, with the possession of wealth, power, and resources, although it may well procure comforts and increase the enjoyment of life, is incapable of satisfying our soul created for higher and more glorious things. To contemplate God, and to tend to Him, is the supreme law of the life of man.
46 These are the statutes (חֹק) (= statute, ordinance, limit, something prescribed, due) and judgments (מִשְׁפָּט) (=judgment, justice, ordinance) and laws (תּוֹרָה) (= law, direction, instruction), which the LORD (יְהֹוָה) (= the existing One) made between him and the children of Israel (יִשְׂרָאֵל) (= God prevails) in mount Sinai (סִינַי) (= thorny) by the hand of Moses (מֹשֶׁה) (= drawn).
For we were created in the divine image and likeness, and are impelled, by our very nature, to the enjoyment of our Creator. But not by bodily motion or effort do we make advance toward God, but through acts of the soul, that is, through knowledge and love. For, indeed, God is the first and supreme truth, and the mind alone feeds on truth. God is perfect holiness and the sovereign good, to which only the will can desire and attain, when virtue is its guide.
2. But what applies to individual men applies equally to society - domestic alike and civil. Nature did not form society in order that man should seek in it his last end, but in order that in it and through it he should find suitable aids whereby to attain to his own perfection. If, then, a political government strives after external advantages only, and the achievement of a cultured and prosperous life; if, in administering public affairs, it is wont to put God aside, and show no solicitude for the upholding of moral law, it deflects woefully from its right course and from the injunctions of nature; nor should it be accounted as a society or a community of men, but only as the deceitful imitation or appearance of a society.
3. As to what We have called the goods of the soul, which consist chiefly in the practice of the true religion and in the unswerving observance of the Christian precepts, We see them daily losing esteem among men, either by reason of forgetfulness or disregard, in such wise that all that is gained for the well-being of the body seems to be lost for that of the soul. A striking proof of the lessening and weakening of the Christian faith is seen in the insults too often done to the Catholic Church, openly and publicly - insults, indeed, which an age cherishing religion would not have tolerated. For these reasons, an incredible multitude of men is in danger of not achieving salvation; and even nations and empires themselves cannot long remain unharmed, since, when Christian institutions and morality decline, the main foundation of human society goes together with them. Force alone will remain to preserve public tranquility and order. But force is very feeble when the bulwark of religion has been removed, and, being more apt to beget slavery than obedience, it bears within itself the germs of ever-increasing troubles. The present century has encountered memorable disasters, and it is not certain that some equally terrible are not impending. The very times in which we live are warning us to seek remedies there where alone they are to be found-namely, by re-establishing in the family circle and throughout the whole range of society the doctrines and practices of the Christian religion. In this lies the sole means of freeing us from the ills now weighing us down, of forestalling the dangers now threatening the world. For the accomplishment of this end, venerable brethren, We must bring to bear all the activity and diligence that lie within Our power. Although we have already, under other circumstances, and whenever occasion required, treated of these matters, We deem it expedient in this letter to define more in detail the duties of the Catholics, inasmuch as these would, if strictly observed, wonderfully contribute to the good of the commonwealth. We have fallen upon times when a violent and well-nigh daily battle is being fought about matters of highest moment, a battle in which it is hard not to be sometimes deceived, not to go astray and, for many, not to lose heart. It behooves us, venerable brethren, to warn, instruct, and exhort each of the faithful with an earnestness befitting the occasion: that none may abandon the way of truth.(1)
4. It cannot be doubted that duties more numerous and of greater moment devolve on Catholics than upon such as are either not sufficiently enlightened in relation to the Catholic faith, or who are entirely unacquainted with its doctrines. Considering that forthwith upon salvation being brought out for mankind, Jesus Christ laid upon His Apostles the injunction to "preach the Gospel to every creature," He imposed, it is evident, upon all men the duty of learning thoroughly and believing what they were taught. This duty is intimately bound up with the gaining of eternal salvation: "He that believeth and is baptized shall be saved; but he that believeth not, shall be condemned."(2) But the man who has embraced the Christian faith, as in duty bound, is by that very fact a subject of the Church as one of the children born of her, and becomes a member of that greatest and holiest body, which it is the special charge of the Roman Pontiff to rule with supreme power, under its invisible head, Jesus Christ.
5. Now, if the natural law enjoins us to love devotedly and to defend the country in which we had birth, and in which we were brought up, so that every good citizen hesitates not to face death for his native land, very much more is it the urgent duty of Christians to be ever quickened by like feelings toward the Church. For the Church is the holy City of the living God, born of God Himself, and by Him built up and established. (Excuse me??? shithead pope)
22 But ye are come unto mount Sion, and unto the city of the living God the heavenly Jerusalem, and to an innumerable company of angels,
23 To the general assembly and church of the firstborn, which are written in heaven, and to God the Judge of all, and to the spirits of just men made perfect,
24 And to Jesus the mediator of the new covenant, and to the blood of sprinkling, that speaketh better things than that of Abel.
47 All the congregation of Israel shall keep it.
49 One law shall be to him that is homeborn, and unto the stranger that sojourneth among you.
Upon this earth, indeed, she accomplishes her pilgrimage, but by instructing and guiding men she summons them to eternal happiness. We are bound, then, to love dearly the country whence we have received the means of enjoyment this mortal life affords, but we have a much more urgent obligation to love, with ardent love, the Church to which we owe the life of the soul, a life that will endure forever. For fitting it is to prefer the good of the soul to the well-being of the body, inasmuch as duties toward God are of a far more hallowed character than those toward men.
6. Moreover, if we would judge aright, the supernatural love for the Church and the natural love of our own country proceed from the same eternal principle, since God Himself is their Author and originating Cause. Consequently, it follows that between the duties they respectively enjoin, neither can come into collision with the other. We can, certainly, and should love ourselves, bear ourselves kindly toward our fellow men, nourish affection for the State and the governing powers; but at the same time we can and must cherish toward the Church a feeling of filial piety, and love God with the deepest love of which we are capable. The order of precedence of these duties is, however, at times, either under stress of public calamities, or through the perverse will of men, inverted. For, instances occur where the State seems to require from men as subjects one thing, and religion, from men as Christians, quite another; and this in reality without any other ground, than that the rulers of the State either hold the sacred power of the Church of no account, or endeavor to subject it to their own will. Hence arises a conflict, and an occasion, through such conflict, of virtue being put to the proof. The two powers are confronted and urge their behests in a contrary sense; to obey both is wholly impossible. No man can serve two masters,(3) for to please the one amounts to contemning the other.
7. As to which should be preferred no one ought to balance for an instant. It is a high crime indeed to withdraw allegiance from God in order to please men, an act of consummate wickedness to break the laws of Jesus Christ, in order to yield obedience to earthly rulers, or, under pretext of keeping the civil law, to ignore the rights of the Church; "we ought to obey God rather than men."(4) This answer, which of old Peter and the other Apostles were used to give the civil authorities who enjoined unrighteous things, we must, in like circumstances, give always and without hesitation. No better citizen is there, whether in time of peace or war, than the Christian who is mindful of his duty; but such a one should be ready to suffer all things, even death itself, rather than abandon the cause of God or of the Church. (Excuse me shithead pope?!!!!)
8. Hence, they who blame, and call by the name of sedition, this steadfastness of attitude in the choice of duty have not rightly apprehended the force and nature of true law. We are speaking of matters widely known, and which We have before now more than once fully explained. Law is of its very essence a mandate of right reason, proclaimed by a properly constituted authority, for the common good. But true and legitimate authority is void of sanction, unless it proceed from God, the supreme Ruler and Lord of all. The Almighty alone can commit power to a man over his fellow men;(5) nor may that be accounted as right reason which is in disaccord with truth and with divine reason; nor that held to be true good which is repugnant to the supreme and unchangeable good, or that wrests aside and draws away the wills of men from the charity of God.
9. Hallowed, therefore, in the minds of Christians is the very idea of public authority, in which they recognize some likeness and symbol as it were of the Divine Majesty, even when it is exercised by one unworthy. A just and due reverence to the laws abides in them, not from force and threats, but from a consciousness of duty; "for God hath not given us the spirit of fear. "(6)
10. But, if the laws of the State are manifestly at variance with the divine law, containing enactments hurtful to the Church, or conveying injunctions adverse to the duties imposed by religion, or if they violate in the person of the supreme Pontiff the authority of Jesus Christ, then, truly, to resist becomes a positive duty, to obey, a crime; a crime, moreover, combined with misdemeanor against the State itself, inasmuch as every offense leveled against religion is also a sin against the State. Here anew it becomes evident how unjust is the reproach of sedition; for the obedience due to rulers and legislators is not refused, but there is a deviation from their will in those precepts only which they have no power to enjoin. Commands that are issued adversely to the honor due to God, and hence are beyond the scope of justice, must be looked upon as anything rather than laws. You are fully aware, venerable brothers, that this is the very contention of the Apostle St. Paul, who, in writing to Titus, after reminding Christians that they are "to be subject to princes and powers, and to obey at a word," at once adds: "And to be ready to every good work."(7) Thereby he openly declares that, if laws of men contain injunctions contrary to the eternal law of God, it is right not to obey them. In like manner, the Prince of the Apostles gave this courageous and sublime answer to those who would have deprived him of the liberty of preaching the Gospel: "If it be just in the sight of God to hear you rather than God, judge ye, for we cannot but speak the things which we have seen and heard."(8) (Excuse me SHITHEAD POPE!!!!)
- Apostle Paul was NOT the first POPE and NOT the Prince of the Apostles.
- Apostle Paul is NOT the LAW. I do NOT have to obey a letter from PAUL.
- No where in the books of Moses is mentioned that we should obey KINGS and rulers.
11. Wherefore, to love both countries, that of earth below and that of heaven above, yet in such mode that the love of our heavenly surpass the love of our earthly home, and that human laws be never set above the divine law, is the essential duty of Christians, and the fountainhead, so to say, from which all other duties spring. The Redeemer of mankind of Himself has said: "For this was I born, and for this came I into the world, that I should give testimony to the truth."(9) In like manner: "I am come to cast fire upon earth, and what will I but that it be kindled?"(10) In the knowledge of this truth, which constitutes the highest perfection of the mind; in divine charity which, in like manner, completes the will, all Christian life and liberty abide. This noble patrimony of truth and charity entrusted by Jesus Christ to the Church she defends and maintains ever with untiring endeavor and watchfulness.
12. But with what bitterness and in how many guises war has been waged against the Church it would be ill-timed now to urge. From the fact that it has been vouchsafed to human reason to snatch from nature, through the investigations of science, many of her treasured secrets and to apply them befittingly to the divers requirements of life, men have become possessed with so arrogant a sense of their own powers as already to consider themselves able to banish from social life the authority and empire of God. Led away by this delusion, they make over to human nature the dominion of which they think God has been despoiled; from nature, they maintain, we must seek the principle and rule of all truth; from nature, they aver, alone spring, and to it should be referred, all the duties that religious feeling prompts. Hence, they deny all revelation from on high, and all fealty due to the Christian teaching of morals as well as all obedience to the Church, and they go so far as to deny her power of making laws and exercising every other kind of right, even disallowing the Church any place among the civil institutions of the commonweal. These men aspire unjustly, and with their might strive, to gain control over public affairs and lay hands on the rudder of the State, in order that the legislation may the more easily be adapted to these principles, and the morals of the people influenced in accordance with them. Whence it comes to pass that in many countries Catholicism is either openly assailed or else secretly interfered with, full impunity being granted to the most pernicious doctrines, while the public profession of Christian truth is shackled oftentimes with manifold constraints.
13. Under such evil circumstances therefore, each one is bound in conscience to watch over himself, taking all means possible to preserve the faith inviolate in the depths of his soul, avoiding all risks, and arming himself on all occasions, especially against the various specious sophism's rife among non-believers. In order to safeguard this virtue of faith in its integrity, We declare it to be very profitable and consistent with the requirements of the time, that each one, according to the measure of his capacity and intelligence, should make a deep study of Christian doctrine, and imbue his mind with as perfect a knowledge as may be of those matters that are interwoven with religion and lie within the range of reason. And as it is necessary that faith should not only abide untarnished in the soul, but should grow with ever painstaking increase, the suppliant and humble entreaty of the apostles ought constantly to be addressed to God: "Increase our faith."(11)
14. But in this same matter, touching Christian faith, there are other duties whose exact and religious observance, necessary at all times in the interests of eternal salvation, become more especially so in these our days. Amid such reckless and widespread folly of opinion, it is, as We have said, the office of the Church to undertake the defense of truth and uproot errors from the mind, and this charge has to be at all times sacredly observed by her, seeing that the honor of God and the salvation of men are confided to her keeping. But, when necessity compels, not those only who are invested with power of rule are bound to safeguard the integrity of faith, but, as St. Thomas maintains: "Each one is under obligation to show forth his faith, either to instruct and encourage others of the faithful, or to repel the attacks of unbelievers."(12) To recoil before an enemy, or to keep silence when from all sides such clamors are raised against truth, is the part of a man either devoid of character or who entertains doubt as to the truth of what he professes to believe. In both cases such mode of behaving is base and is insulting to God, and both are incompatible with the salvation of mankind. This kind of conduct is profitable only to the enemies of the faith, for nothing emboldens the wicked so greatly as the lack of courage on the part of the good. Moreover, want of vigor on the part of Christians is so much the more blameworthy, as not seldom little would be needed on their part to bring to naught false charges and refute erroneous opinions, and by always exerting themselves more strenuously they might reckon upon being successful. After all, no one can be prevented from putting forth that strength of soul which is the characteristic of true Christians, and very frequently by such display of courage our enemies lose heart and their designs are thwarted. Christians are, moreover, born for combat, whereof the greater the vehemence, the more assured, God aiding, the triumph: "Have confidence; I have overcome the world."(13) Nor is there any ground for alleging that Jesus Christ, the Guardian and Champion of the Church, needs not in any manner the help of men. Power certainly is not wanting to Him, but in His loving kindness He would assign to us a share in obtaining and applying the fruits of salvation procured through His grace.
15. The chief elements of this duty consist in professing openly and unflinchingly the Catholic doctrine, and in propagating it to the utmost of our power. For, as is often said, with the greatest truth, there is nothing so hurtful to Christian wisdom as that it should not be known, since it possesses, when loyally received, inherent power to drive away error. So soon as Catholic truth is apprehended by a simple and unprejudiced soul, reason yields assent. Now, faith, as a virtue, is a great boon of divine grace and goodness; nevertheless, the objects themselves to which faith is to be applied are scarcely known in any other way than through the hearing. "How shall they believe Him of whom they have not heard? and how shall they hear without a preacher? Faith then cometh by hearing, and hearing by the word of Christ."(14) Since, then, faith is necessary for salvation, it follows that the word of Christ must tie preached. The office, indeed, of preaching, that is, of teaching, lies by divine right in the province of the pastors, namely, of the bishops whom "the Holy Spirit has placed to rule the Church of God."(15) It belongs, above all, to the Roman Pontiff, vicar of Jesus Christ, established as head of the universal Church, teacher of all :hat pertains to morals and faith.
16. No one, however, must entertain the notion that private individuals are prevented from taking some active part in this duty of teaching, especially those on whom God has bestowed gifts of mind with the strong wish of rendering themselves useful. These, so often as circumstances demand, may take upon themselves, not, indeed, the office of the pastor, but the task of communicating to others what they have themselves received, becoming, as it were, living echoes of their masters in the faith. Such co-operation on the part of the laity has seemed to the Fathers of the Vatican Council so opportune and fruitful of good that they thought well to invite it. "All faithful Christians, but those chiefly who are in a prominent position, or engaged in teaching, we entreat, by the compassion of Jesus Christ, and enjoin by the authority of the same God and Savior, that they bring aid to ward off and eliminate these errors from holy Church, and contribute their zealous help in spreading abroad the light of undefiled faith."(16) Let each one, therefore, bear in mind that he both can and should, so far as may be, preach the Catholic faith by the authority of his example, and by open and constant profession of the obligations it imposes. In respect, consequently, to the duties that bind us to God and the Church, it should be borne earnestly in mind that in propagating Christian truth and warding off errors the zeal of the laity should, as far as possible, be brought actively into play.
17. The faithful would not, however, so completely and advantageously satisfy these duties as is fitting they should were they to enter the field as isolated champions of the faith. Jesus Christ, indeed, has clearly intimated that the hostility and hatred of men, which He first and foremost experienced, would be shown in like degree toward the work founded by Him, so that many would be barred from profiting by the salvation for which all are indebted to His loving kindness. Wherefore, He willed not only to train disciples in His doctrine, but to unite them into one society, and closely conjoin them in one body, "which is the Church,"(17) whereof He would be the head. The life of Jesus Christ pervades, therefore, the entire framework of this body, cherishes and nourishes its every member, uniting each with each, and making all work together to the same end, albeit the action of each be not the same.(l8) Hence it follows that not only is the Church a perfect society far excelling every other, but it is enjoined by her Founder that for the salvation of mankind she is to contend "as an army drawn up in battle array."(19) The organization and constitution of Christian society can in no wise be changed, neither can any one of its members live as he may choose, nor elect that mode of fighting which best pleases him. For, in effect, he scatters and gathers not who gathers not with the Church and with Jesus Christ, and all who fight not jointly with him and with the Church are in very truth contending against God.(20)
18. To bring about such a union of minds and uniformity of action - not without reason so greatly feared by the enemies of Catholicism - the main point is that a perfect harmony of opinion should prevail; in which intent we find Paul the Apostle exhorting the Corinthians with earnest zeal and solemn weight of words: "Now I beseech you, brethren, by the name of our Lord Jesus Christ, that you all speak the same thing, and that there be no schisms among you: but that you be perfectly in the same mind, and in the same judgment."(21)
19. The wisdom of this precept is readily apprehended. In truth, thought is the principle of action, and hence there cannot exist agreement of will, or similarity of action, if people all think differently one from the other.
20. In the case of those who profess to take reason as their sole guide, there would hardly be found, if, indeed, there ever could be found, unity of doctrine. Indeed, the art of knowing things as they really are is exceedingly difficult; moreover, the mind of man is by nature feeble and drawn this way and that by a variety of opinions, and not seldom led astray by impressions coming from without; and, furthermore, the influence of the passions oftentimes takes away, or certainly at least diminishes, the capacity for grasping the truth. On this account, in controlling State affairs means are often used to keep those together by force who cannot agree in their way of thinking.
21. It happens far otherwise with Christians; they receive their rule of faith from the Church, by whose authority and under whose guidance they are conscious that they have beyond question attained to truth. Consequently, as the Church is one, because Jesus Christ is one, so throughout the whole Christian world there is, and ought to be, but one doctrine: "One Lord, one faith;"(22) "but having the same spirit of faith,"(23) they possess the saving principle whence proceed spontaneously one and the same will in all, and one and the same tenor of action.
22. Now, as the Apostle Paul urges, this unanimity ought to be perfect. Christian faith reposes not on human but on divine authority, for what God has revealed "we believe not on account of the intrinsic evidence of the truth perceived by the natural light of our reason, but on account of the authority of God revealing, who cannot be deceived nor Himself deceive."(24) It follows as a consequence that whatever things are manifestly revealed by God we must receive with a similar and equal assent. To refuse to believe any one of them is equivalent to rejecting them all, for those at once destroy the very groundwork of faith who deny that God has spoken to men, or who bring into doubt His infinite truth and wisdom. To determine, however, which are the doctrines divinely revealed belongs to the teaching Church, to whom God has entrusted the safekeeping and interpretation of His utterances. But the supreme teacher in the Church is the Roman Pontiff. Union of minds, therefore, requires, together with a perfect accord in the one faith, complete submission and obedience of will to the Church and to the Roman Pontiff, as to God Himself. This obedience should, however, be perfect, because it is enjoined by faith itself, and has this in common with faith, that it cannot be given in shreds; nay, were it not absolute and perfect in every particular, it might wear the name of obedience, but its essence would disappear. Christian usage attaches such value to this perfection of obedience that it has been, and will ever be, accounted the distinguishing mark by which we are able to recognize Catholics. Admirably does the following passage from St. Thomas Aquinas set before us the right view: "The formal object of faith is primary truth, as it is shown forth in the holy Scriptures, and in the teaching of the Church, which proceeds from the fountainhead of truth. It follows, therefore, that he who does not adhere, as to an infallible divine rule, to the teaching of the Church, which proceeds from the primary truth manifested in the holy Scriptures, possesses not the habit of faith; but matters of faith he holds otherwise than true faith. Now, it is evident that he who clings to the doctrines of the Church as to an infallible rule yields his assent to everything the Church teaches; but otherwise, if with reference to what the Church teaches he holds what he likes but does not hold what he does not like, he adheres not to the teaching of the Church as to an infallible rule, but to his own will."(25)
23. "The faith of the whole Church should be one, according to the precept (1 Cor. 1:10): "Let all speak the same thing, and let there be no schisms among you"; and this cannot be observed save on condition that questions which arise touching faith should be determined by him who presides over the whole Church, whose sentence must consequently be accepted without wavering. And hence to the sole authority of the supreme Pontiff does it pertain to publish a new revision of the symbol, as also to decree all other matters that concern the universal Church."(26)
24. In defining the limits of the obedience owed to the pastors of souls, but most of all to the authority of the Roman Pontiff, it must not be supposed that it is only to be yielded in relation to dogmas of which the obstinate denial cannot be dis joined from the crime of heresy. Nay, further, it is not enough sincerely and firmly to assent to doctrines which, though not defined by any solemn pronouncement of the Church, are by her proposed to belief, as divinely revealed, in her common and universal teaching, and which the Vatican Council declared are to be believed "with Catholic and divine faith."(27) But this likewise must be reckoned amongst the duties of Christians, that they allow themselves to be ruled and directed by the authority and leadership of bishops, and, above all, of the apostolic see. And how fitting it is that this should be so any one can easily perceive. For the things contained in the divine oracles have reference to God in part, and in part to man, and to whatever is necessary for the attainment of his eternal salvation. Now, both these, that is to say, what we are bound to believe and what we are obliged to do, are laid down, as we have stated, by the Church using her divine right, and in the Church by the supreme Pontiff. Wherefore it belongs to the Pope to judge authoritatively what things the sacred oracles contain, as well as what doctrines are in harmony, and what in disagreement, with them; and also, for the same reason, to show forth what things are to be accepted as right, and what to be rejected as worthless; what it is necessary to do and what to avoid doing, in order to attain eternal salvation. For, otherwise, there would be no sure interpreter of the commands of God, nor would there be any safe guide showing man the way he should live.
25. In addition to what has been laid down, it is necessary to enter more fully into the nature of the Church. She is not an association of Christians brought together by chance, but is a divinely established and admirably constituted society, having for its direct and proximate purpose to lead the world to peace and holiness. And since the Church alone has, through the grace of God, received the means necessary to realize such end, she has her fixed laws, special spheres of action, and a certain method, fixed and conformable to her nature, of governing Christian peoples. But the exercise of such governing power is difficult, and leaves room for numberless conflicts, inasmuch as the Church rules peoples scattered through every portion of the earth, differing in race and customs, who, living under the sway of the laws of their respective countries, owe obedience alike to the civil and religious authorities. The duties enjoined are incumbent on the same persons, as already stated, and between them there exists neither contradiction nor confusion; for some of these duties have relation to the prosperity of the State, others refer to the general good of the Church, and both have as their object to train men to perfection.
26. The tracing out of these rights and duties being thus set forth, it is plainly evident that the governing powers are wholly free to carry out the business of the State; and this not only not against the wish of the Church, but manifestly with her co-operation, inasmuch as she strongly urges to the practice of piety, which implies right feeling towards God, and by that very fact inspires a right-mindedness toward the rulers in the State. The spiritual power, however, has a far loftier purpose, the Church directing her aim to govern the minds of men in the defending of the "kingdom of God, and His justice,"(28) a task she is wholly bent upon accomplishing.
27. No one can, however, without risk to faith, foster any doubt as to the Church alone having been invested with such power of governing souls as to exclude altogether the civil authority. In truth, it was not to Caesar but to Peter that Jesus Christ entrusted the keys of the kingdom of Heaven. From this doctrine touching the relations of politics and religion originate important consequences which we cannot pass over in silence.
28. A notable difference exists between every kind of civil rule and that of the kingdom of Christ. If this latter bear a certain likeness and character to a civil kingdom, it is distinguished from it by its origin, principle, and essence. The Church, therefore, possesses the right to exist and to protect herself by institutions and laws in accordance with her nature. And since she not only is a perfect society in herself, but superior to every other society of human growth, she resolutely refuses, promoted alike by right and by duty, to link herself to any mere party and to subject herself to the fleeting exigencies of politics. On like grounds, the Church, the guardian always of her own right and most observant of that of others, holds that it is not her province to decide which is the best amongst many diverse forms of government and the civil institutions of Christian States, and amid the various kinds of State rule she does not disapprove of any, provided the respect due to religion and the observance of good morals be upheld. By such standard of conduct should the thoughts and mode of acting of every Catholic be directed.
29. There is no doubt that in the sphere of politics ample matter may exist for legitimate difference of opinion, and that, the single reserve being made of the rights of justice and truth, all may strive to bring into actual working the ideas believed likely to be more conducive than others to the general welfare. But to attempt to involve the Church in party strife, and seek to bring her support to bear against those who take opposite views is only worthy of partisans. Religion should, on the contrary, be accounted by every one as holy and inviolate; nay, in the public order itself of States-which cannot be severed from the laws influencing morals and from religious duties-it is always urgent, and indeed the main preoccupation, to take thought how best to consult the interests of Catholicism. Wherever these appear by reason of the efforts of adversaries to be in danger, all differences of opinion among Catholics should forthwith cease, so that, like thoughts and counsels prevailing, they may hasten to the aid of religion, the general and supreme good, to which all else should be referred. We think it well to treat this matter somewhat more in detail.
30. The Church alike and the State, doubtless, both possess individual sovereignty; hence, in the carrying out of public affairs, neither obeys the other within the limits to which each is restricted by its constitution. It does not hence follow, however, that Church and State are in any manner severed, and still less antagonistic, Nature, in fact, has given us not only physical existence, but moral life likewise. Hence, from the tranquility of public order, which is the immediate purpose of civil society, man expects to derive his well-being, and still more the sheltering care necessary to his moral life, which consists exclusively in the knowledge and practice of virtue. He wishes, moreover, at the same time, as in duty bound, to find in the Church the aids necessary to his religious perfection, in the knowledge and practice of the true religion; of that religion which is the queen of virtues, because in binding these to God it completes them all and perfects them. Therefore, they who are engaged in framing constitutions and in enacting laws should bear in mind the moral and religious nature of man, and take care to help him, but in a right and orderly way, to gain perfection, neither enjoining nor forbidding anything save what is reasonably consistent with civil as well as with religious requirements. On this very account, the Church cannot stand by, indifferent as to the import and significance of laws enacted by the State; not insofar, indeed, as they refer to the State, but in so far as, passing beyond their due limits, they trench upon the rights of the Church.
31. From God has the duty been assigned to the Church not only to interpose resistance, if at any time the State rule should run counter to religion, but, further, to make a strong endeavor that the power of the Gospel may pervade the law and institutions of the nations. And inasmuch as the destiny of the State depends mainly on the disposition of those who are at the head of affairs, it follows that the Church cannot give countenance or favor to those whom she knows to be imbued with a spirit of hostility to her; who refuse openly to respect her rights; who make it their aim and purpose to tear asunder the alliance that should, by the very nature of things, connect the interests of religion with those of the State. On the contrary, she is (as she is bound to be) the upholder of those who are themselves imbued with the right way of thinking as to the relations between Church and State, and who strive to make them work in perfect accord for the common good. These precepts contain the abiding principle by which every Catholic should shape his conduct in regard to public life. In short, where the Church does not forbid taking part in public affairs, it is fit and proper to give support to men of acknowledged worth, and who pledge themselves to deserve well in the Catholic cause, and on no account may it be allowed to prefer to them any such individuals as are hostile to religion.
32. Whence it appears how urgent is the duty to maintain perfect union of minds, especially at these our times, when the Christian name is assailed with designs so concerted and subtle. All who have it at heart to attach themselves earnestly to the Church, which is "the pillar and ground of the truth,"(29) will easily steer clear of masters who are "lying and promising them liberty, when they themselves are slaves of corruption."(30) Nay, more, having made themselves sharers in the divine virtue which resides in the Church, they will triumph over the craft of their adversaries by wisdom, and over their violence by courage. This is not now the time and place to inquire whether and how far the inertness and internal dissensions of Catholics have contributed to the present condition of things; but it is certain at least that the perverse-minded would exhibit less boldness, and would not have brought about such an accumulation of ills, if the faith "which worketh by charity"(31) had been generally more energetic and lively in the souls of men, and had there not been so universal a drifting away from the divinely established rule of morality throughout Christianity. May at least the lessons afforded by the memory of the past have the good result of leading to a wiser mode of acting in the future.
33. As to those who mean to take part in public affairs, they should avoid with the very utmost care two criminal excesses: so-called prudence and false courage. Some there are, indeed, who maintain that it is not opportune boldly to attack evil - doing in its might and when in the ascendant, lest, as they say, opposition should exasperate minds already hostile. These make it a matter of guesswork as to whether they are for the Church or against her, since on the one hand they give themselves out as professing the Catholic faith, and yet wish that the Church should allow certain opinions, at variance with her teaching, to be spread abroad with impunity. They moan over the loss of faith and the perversion of morals, yet trouble themselves not to bring any remedy; nay, not seldom, even add to the intensity of the mischief through too much forbearance or harmful dissembling. These same individuals would not have any one entertain a doubt as to their good will towards the holy see; yet they have always a something by way of reproach against the supreme Pontiff.
34. The prudence of men of this cast is of that kind which is termed by the Apostle Paul 'wisdom of the flesh" and "death" of the soul, `because it is not subject to the law of God, neither can it be."(32) (Excuse me POPE shithead) Nothing is less calculated to emend such ills than prudence of this kind. For he enemies of the Church have for their object-and they hesitate not to proclaim it, and many among them boast of it - to destroy outright, if possible, the Catholic religion, which alone the true religion. (Who do you think you are you SHITHEAD POPE) With such a purpose in and they shrink from nothing, for they are fully conscious that the more faint - hearted those who withstand them become, the more easy will it be to work out their wicked will. Therefore, they who cherish the "prudence of the flesh" and who pretend to be unaware that every Christian ought to be a valiant soldier of Christ; they who would faro (banker) (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Faro_(card_game)) obtain the rewards owing to conquerors, while they are leading the lives of cowards, untouched in the fight, are so far from thwarting the onward march of the evil - disposed that, on the contrary, they even help it forward.
35. On the other hand, not a few, impelled by a false zeal, or - what is more blameworthy still - affecting sentiments which their conduct belies, take upon themselves to act a part which does not belong to them. They would faire see the Church's mode of action influenced by their ideas and their judgment to such an extent that everything done otherwise they take ill or accept with repugnance. Some, yet again, expend their energies in fruitless contention, being worthy of blame equally with the former. To act in such manner is nor to follow lawful authority but to forestall it, and, unauthorized, assume the duties of the spiritual rulers, to the great detriment of the order which God established in His Church to be observed forever, and which He does not permit to be violated with impunity by any one, whoever he may be.
36. Honor, then, to those who shrink not from entering the arena as often as need calls, believing and being convinced that the violence of injustice will be brought to an end and finally give way to the sanctity of right and religion! They truly seem invested with the dignity of time honored virtue, since they are struggling to defend religion, and chiefly against the faction banded together to attack Christianity with extreme daring and without tiring, and to pursue with incessant hostility the sovereign Pontiff, fallen into their power. But men of this high character maintain without wavering the love of obedience, nor are they wont to undertake anything upon their own authority. Now, since a like resolve to obey, combined with constancy and sturdy courage, is needful, so that whatever trials the pressure of events may bring about, they may be "deficient in nothing,"(33)We greatly desire to fix deep in the minds of each one that which Paul calls the "wisdom of the spirit,(34) for in controlling human actions this wisdom follows the excellent rule of moderation, with the happy result that no one either timidly despairs through lack of courage or presumes overmuch from want to prudence. There is, however, a difference between the political prudence that relates to the general good and that which concerns the good of individuals. This latter is shown forth in the case of private persons who obey the prompting of right reason in the direction of their own conduct; while the former is the characteristic of those who are set over others, and chiefly of rulers of the State, whose duty it is to exercise the power of command, so that the political prudence of private individuals would seem to consist wholly in carrying out faithfully the orders issued by lawful authority.(35)
37. The like disposition and the same order should prevail in the Christian society by so much the more that the political prudence of the Pontiff embraces diverse and multiform things, for it is his charge not only to rule the Church, but generally so to regulate the actions of Christian citizens that these may be in apt conformity to their hope of gain in eternal salvation. (Who does he [the pope] think he is?) Whence it is clear that, in addition to the complete accordance of thought and deed, the faithful should follow the practical political wisdom of the ecclesiastical authority. Now, the administration of Christian affairs immediately under the Roman Pontiff appertains to the bishops,who, although they attain not to the summit of pontifical power, are nevertheless truly princes in the ecclesiastical hierarchy; and as each one of them administers a particular church, they are "as master-workers... in the spiritual edifice,"(36) and they have members of the clergy to share their duties and carry out their decisions. Every one has to regulate his mode of conduct according to this constitution of the Church, which it is not in the power of any man to change. Consequently, just as in the exercise of their episcopal authority the bishops ought to be united with the apostolic see so should the members of the clergy and the laity live in close union with their bishops. Among the prelates, indeed, one or other there may be affording scope to criticism either in regard to personal conduct or in reference to opinions by him entertained about points of doctrine; but no private person may arrogate to himself the office of judge which Christ our Lord has bestowed on that one alone whom He placed in charge of His lambs and of His sheep. Let every one bear in mind that most wise teaching of Gregory the Great: "Subjects should be admonished not rashly to judge their prelates, even if they chance to see them acting in a blameworthy manner, lest, justly reproving what is wrong, they be led by pride into greater wrong. They are to be warned against the danger of setting themselves up in audacious opposition to the superiors whose shortcomings they may notice. Should,therefore, the superiors really have committed grievous sins, their inferiors,penetrated with the fear of God, ought not to refuse them respectful submission.The actions of superiors should not be smitten by the sword of the word, even when they are rightly judged to have deserved censure."(37)
38. However, all endeavors will avail but little unless our life be regulated conform ably with the discipline of the Christian virtues. Let us call to mind what holy Scripture records concerning the Jewish nation: "As long as they sinned not in the sight of their God,it was well with them: for their God hateth iniquity. And even . . . when they had revolted from the way that God had given them to walk therein, they were destroyed in battles by many nations."(38) Now, the nation of the Jews borean inchoate semblance to the Christian people, and the vicissitudes of their history in olden times have often foreshadowed the truth that was to come,saving that God in His goodness has enriched and loaded us with far greater benefits, and on this account the sins of Christians are much greater, and bear the stamp of more shameful and criminal ingratitude.
39. The Church, it is certain, at no time and in no particular is deserted by God; hence, there is no reason why she should be alarmed at the wickedness of men; but in the case of nations falling away from Christian virtue there is not a like ground of assurance, "for sin maketh nations miserable."(39) If every bygone age has experienced the force of this truth, wherefore should not our own? There are, in truth, very many signs which proclaim that just punishments are already menacing, and the condition of modern States tends to confirm this belief, since we perceive many of them in sad plight from intestine disorders, and not one entirely exempt. But, should those leagued together in wickedness hurry onward in the road they have boldly chosen, should they increase in influence and power in proportion as they make headway in their evil purposes and crafty schemes, there will be ground to fearlest the very foundations nature has laid for States to rest upon be utterly destroyed. Nor can such misgivings be removed by any mere human effort,especially as a vast number of men, having rejected the Christian faith, are on that account justly incurring the penalty of their pride, since blinded by their passions they search in vain for truth, laying hold on the false for the true,and thinking themselves wise when they call "evil good, and good evil," and "put darkness in the place of light, and light in the place of darkness."(40) It is therefore necessary that God come to the rescue,and that, mindful of His mercy, He turn an eye of compassion on human society.
40. Hence, We renew the urgent entreaty We have already made, to redouble zeal and perseverance, when addressing humble supplications to our merciful God, so that the virtues whereby a Christian life is perfected may be reawakened. It is, however, urgent before all, that charity,which is the main foundation of the Christian life, and apart from which the other virtues exist not or remain barren, should be quickened and maintained.Therefore is it that the Apostle Paul, after having exhorted the Colossians to flee all vice and cultivate all virtue, adds: "Above all things, have charity, which is the bond of perfection."(41) Yea, truly, charity is the bond of perfection, for it binds intimately to God those whom it has embraced and with loving tenderness, causes them to draw their life from God, to act with God, to refer all to God. Howbeit, the love of God should not be severed from the love of our neighbor, since men have a share in the infinite goodness of God and bear in themselves the impress of His image and likeness. "This commandment we have from God, that he who loveth God, love also his brother."(42) "If any man say I love God, and he hateth his brother,he is a liar."(43) And this commandment concerning charity its divine pro claimer styled new, not in the sense that a previous law, or even nature it self, had not enjoined that men should love one another, but because the Christian precept of loving each other in that manner was truly new, and quite unheard of in the memory of man. For, that love with which Jesus Christ is beloved by His Father and with which He Himself loves men, He obtained for His disciples and followers that they might be of one heart and of one mind in Him by charity, as He Himself and His Father are one by their nature.
41. No one is unaware how deeply and from the very beginning the import of that precept has been implanted in the breast of Christians, and what abundant fruits of concord, mutual benevolence, piety,patience, and fortitude it has produced. Why, then, should we not devote ourselves to imitate the examples set by our fathers? The very times in which we live should afford sufficient motives for the practice of charity. Since impious men are bent on giving fresh impulse to their hatred against Jesus Christ,Christians should be quickened anew in piety; and charity, which is the inspirer of lofty deeds, should be imbued with new life. Let dissensions therefore, if there be any, wholly cease; let those strife which waste the strength of those engaged in the fight, without any advantage resulting to religion, be scattered to the winds; let all minds be united in faith and all hearts in charity, so that, as it behooves, life may be spent in the practice of the love of God and the love of men.
42. This is a suitable moment for us to exhort specially heads of families to govern their households according to these precepts, and to be solicitous without failing for the right training of their children. The family may be regarded as the cradle of civil society, and it is in great measure within the circle of family life that the destiny of the States is fostered. Whence it is that they who would break away from Christian discipline are working to corrupt family life, and to destroy it utterly, root and branch. From such an unholy purpose they allow not themselves to be turned aside by the reflection that it cannot, even in any degree, be carried out without inflicting cruel outrage on the parents. These hold from nature their right of training the children to whom they have given birth, with the obligation super-added of shaping and directing the education of their little ones to the end for which God vouch - safed the privilege of transmitting the gift of life. It is, then, incumbent on parents to strain every nerve to ward off such an outrage, and to strive manfully to have and to hold exclusive authority to direct the education of their offspring, as is fitting, in a Christian manner, and first and foremost to keep them away from schools where there is risk of their drinking in the poison of impiety. Where the right education of youth is concerned, no amount of trouble or labor can be undertaken, how great soever, but that even greater still may not be called for. In this regard,indeed, there are to be found in many countries Catholics worthy of general admiration, who incur considerable outlay and bestow much zeal in founding schools for the education of youth. It is highly desirable that such noble example may be generously followed, where time and circumstances demand, yet all should be intimately persuaded that the minds of children are most influenced by the training they receive at home. If in their early years they find within the walls of their homes the rule of an upright life and the discipline of Christian virtues, the future welfare of society will in great measure be guaranteed.
43. And now We seem to have touched upon those matters which Catholics ought chiefly nowadays to follow, or mainly to avoid. It rests with you, venerable brothers, to take measures that Our voice may reach everywhere, and that one and all may understand how urgent it is to reduce to practice the teachings set forth in this Our letter. The observance of these duties cannot be troublesome or onerous, for the yoke of Jesus Christ is sweet,and His burden is light. If anything, however, appear too difficult of accomplishment, you will afford aid by the authority of your example, so that each one of the faithful may make more strenuous endeavor, and display a soul unconquered by difficulties. Bring it home to their minds, as We have Ourselves oftentimes conveyed the warning, that matters of the highest moment and worthy of all honor are at stake, for the safeguarding of which every most toilsome effort should be readily endured; and that a sublime reward is in store for the labors of a Christian life. On the other hand, to refrain from doing battle for Jesus Christ amounts to fighting against Him; He Himself assures us "He will deny before His Father in heaven those who shall have refused to confess Him on earth."(44) As for Ourselves and you all, never assuredly, so long as life lasts, shall We allow Our authority, Our counsels, and Our solicitude to be in any wise lacking in the conflict. Nor is it to be doubted but that especial aid of the great God will be vouchsafed, so long as the struggle endures, to the flock alike and to the pastors.Sustained by this confidence, as a pledge of heavenly gifts, and of Our loving kindness in the Lord to you, venerable brothers, to your clergy and to all your people, We accord the apostolic benediction.
Given at St. Peter's in Rome, the tenth day of January, 1890, the twelfth year of Our pontificate..
1. Tobias 1:2.
2. Mark 16:16.
3. Matt. 6:24.
4. Acts 5:29.
5. Note the extreme importance of this principle; it justifies the doctrine according to which the only conceivable foundation of political authority must be divine in origin.
6. 2 Tim. 1:7.
7. Titus 3:1. (Liars: Ephesians 2: 1-2 + 19)
8. Acts 4:19-20.
9. John 18:37.
10. Luke 12:49.
11. Luke 17:5.
12. Summa theologiae, IIa-IIae, qu. iii, art. 2, ad 2m.
13. John 16:33.
14. Rom. 10:14, 17.
15. Acts 20:28.
16. Constitution Dei Filius, at end.
17. Col. 1:24.
18. Cf. Rom. 12:4-5.
19. Cant. 6:9.
20. Cf. Luke 11:22.
21. 1 Cor. 1:10.
22. Eph. 4:5.
23. 2 Cor. 4:13.
24. Constitution Dei Filius, cap. 3.
25. Summa theologiae, IIa-IIae, q. v, art. 3.
26. Ibid., q. i, arc. 10.
27. Vatican Council, Constit. de fide catholica, cap. 3, De fide. Cf. H. Denziger, Enchiridion Symbolorium 11 ed., Freiburg i. Br., 1911), p. 476.
28. Matt. 6:33.
29. I Tim. 3:15.
30. 2 Peter 2:1, 19.
31. Gal. 5:6.
32. Cf. Rom. 8:6-7.
33. James 1:4.
34. Rom. 8:6.
35. "Prudence proceeds from reason, and to reason it specially pertains to guide and govern. Whence it follows that, in so much as any one takes part in the control and government of affairs, in so far ought he to be gifted with reason and prudence. But it is evident that the subject, so far as subject, and the servant ought neither to control nor govern, but rather to be controlled and governed. Prudence, then, is not the special virtue of the servant, so far as servant, nor of the subject, so far as subject. But because any man, on account of his character of a reasonable being, may have some share in the government on account of the rational choice which he exercises, it is fitting that in such proportion he should possess the virtue of prudence. Whence it manifestly results that prudence exists in the ruler as the art of building exists in the architect, whereas prudence exists in the subject as the art of building exists in the hand of the workman employed in the construction." Summa theologiae, IIa-Ilae, q. xlvii, art. 12, Answer. St. Thomas Aquinas refers to Aristotle, Ethic. Nic., Bk. VI, 8, 1141b 21-29.
36. Thomas Aquinas Quaest Quodl., 1, G. 7, art. 2, Answer.
37. Regina pastorales, Part 3, cap. 4 (PL 77, 55).
38. Judith 5:21-22.
39. Prov. 14:34.
40. Isa. 5:20.
41. Col. 3:14.
42. I John 4:21.
43. I John 4:20.
44. Luke 9:26.
Copyright © Libreria Editrice Vaticana
1 And you hath he quickened, who were dead in trespasses and sins;
2 Wherein in time past ye walked according to the course of this world, according to the prince of the power of the air, the spirit that now worketh in the children of disobedience:
19 Now therefore ye are no more strangers and foreigners, but fellow citizens with the saints, and of the household of God;
10 As we have therefore opportunity, let us do good unto all men, especially unto them who are of the household of faith.
A game of faro was often called a "faro bank". It was played with an entire deck of playing cards. One person was designated the "banker" and an indeterminate number of players, known as "punters", could be admitted. Chips (called "checks") were purchased by the punter from the banker (or house) from which the game originated. Bet values and limits were set by the house. Usual check values were 50 cents to $10 each.
The faro table was typically oval, covered with green baize, and had a cutout for the banker. A board was placed on top of the table with one suit of cards (traditionally spades) pasted to it in numerical order, representing a standardized betting "layout". Each player laid his stake on one of the 13 cards on the layout. Players could place multiple bets and could bet on multiple cards simultaneously by placing their bet between cards or on specific card edges. A player could reverse the intent of his bet by placing a hexagonal (6-sided) token called a "copper" on it. Some histories said a penny was sometimes used in place of a copper. This was known as "coppering" the bet, and reversed the meaning of the win/loss piles for that particular bet. Players also had the choice of betting on the "high card" bar located at the top of the layout.
Door de wet van 20/2011 van 21 juli 2011 werd artikel 30 van de Código español aangepast en
werden de twee bovenstaande voorwaarden weggelaten. Artikel 30 C.c.548 bepaalt nu dat de
rechtspersoonlijkheid wordt verworven op het moment van de geboorte van het levend kind en
gevolgen produceert vanaf het moment dat het kind geheel onafhankelijk van de baarmoeder is. 549
De twee nieuwe voorwaarden die vanaf dan moeten worden voldaan om rechtspersoonlijkheid te
krijgen zijn levend geboren worden en gescheiden zijn van de baarmoeder. Hierbij volstaat het
niet om uit de baarmoeder te zijn, maar ook de navelstreng moet doorgeknipt worden. Deze brede
interpretatie zou er normaal gezien voor zorgen dat er geen onzekerheid kan bestaan over het feit
of het kind al dan niet levend werd geboren en rechtspersoonlijkheid verworven heeft. 550 Wanneer
hierover toch onzekerheid zou bestaan, kan er door een simpele medische proef worden nagegaan
of het geboren kind ook levend ter wereld kwam. 551
Door deze aanpassing stelt artikel 30 van de Código civil español met meer precisie dan voorheen
vast wanneer er rechtspersoonlijkheid wordt verworven. 552 Toch stelt MACANÁS dat de
wettelijke status van nieuwgeborenen nog steeds niet in overeenstemming is met de wettelijke en
wetenschappelijke mogelijkheden. 553 De nieuwe regelgeving geeft volgens MACANÁS geen
oplossing om perinataal leven bij een kind vast te stellen, waardoor deze onzekerheid implicaties
zou kunnen hebben bij de gevolgen van de burgerrechtelijke registratie.
545 I. DE CUEVILLAS MATOZZI, J. DE CASTRO GARCÍA en R. GONZÁLEZ GARCÍA-MIER, Instituciones de
derecho civil patrimonial, Madrid, Edotorial Tecnos, 2016, 83-84.
546 J. CASTAN TOBEÑAS, J., Derecho civil Español, común y floral, I, Volume 2: Teoría de la relación juridica y
los derechos subjectivos. Los derechos de la personalidad., Madrid, Reus, 1955, 108.
547 C. LÓPEZ SÁNCHEZ, “Los derechos de las personas en el nuevo registro civil”, Derecho Privado y Constitución
548 Art. 30 redactado por la disposición final tercera de la Ley 20/2011, de 21 de julio, del Registro Civil, BOE, 22
549 C. LÓPEZ SÁNCHEZ, “Los derechos de las personas en el nuevo registro civil”, Derecho Privado y Constitución
550 G. MACANÁS, “Efectos y defectos del artículo 30 del Código civil”, In Dret 2013, (1) 12-13.
551 Dit kan worden nagegaan door de longen van het kind in water te leggen en is gebaseerd op het fysisch verschijnsel
dat het soortelijk gewicht van de longer kleiner wordt door het extra volume die de longen hebben omdat er lucht
aanwezig is. Wanneer er geen lucht in de longen aanwezig is gaan de longen niet drijven, maar zinken ze. Dan is het
kind niet levend ter wereld gekomen. Indien de longen drijven op het water is er lucht aanwezig in de longen en is het
kind levend ter wereld gekomen.
552 C. LÓPEZ SÁNCHEZ, “Los derechos de las personas en el nuevo registro civil”, Derecho Privado y Constitución
2011, 269, vn. 21-22.
553 G. MACANÁS, “Efectos y defectos del artículo 30 del Código civil”, InDret 2013, (1) 2.
554 G. CORNU, Droit civil. Introduction. Les personnes. Les biens, Parijs, Editions Montchrestien, 2001, 199, nr. 462.
Sui juris: ‘De mogelijkheid om uw eigen zaken te beheren (zonder enige juridische
handicap).’ [Black`s Law 2nd Edition]
Let op met deze definitie! Het is alleen van toepassing binnen de statuten van de staat! We
gebruiken de onzin niet! Omdat we geen contract willen aangaan dat ons als beveiliging
(borgstelling) gebruikt. [Black´s Law 6 th Edition]
Bulla Unam Sanctam door Paus Bonifatius VIII van 18 november 1302
(en alle opeenvolgende CQV-TRUSTS ervan): "Porro subesse Romano Pontifici omni humanae creaturae declaramus, dicimus, definimus et pronunciamus omnio esse de necessitate salutis". “We verklaren, zeggen, definiëren en kondigen aan dat het absoluut noodzakelijk is dat elk menselijk wezen voor zijn eigen heil en redding onderworpen is aan de Romeinse bisschop.”
Zelf-legitimatie door de paus van een absolute claim om de aarde en alle levende wezens te controleren, te beheersen en te onderdrukken.