Biblical ID



Acts 17:

26 And hath made of one blood all nations of men for to dwell on all the face of the earth, and hath determined the times before appointed, and the bounds of their habitation;


Surname AΩ אֶת


This is how you make a Biblical ID for yourself.

(Fill in the green places with your own information). 


I put behind all earthly ties and allegiances to friends and family,

giving up earthly citizenship for Kingdom citizenship.


: Marita: de Gier.


First Name:                            :Marita, Minister of הוֹשׁוּעַ (Yahushua) מָשִׁיחַ (Ha-Mashiach),

                                                (Exodus 17:9, Isaiah 45:1, James 2:9, 1 Peter 1: 17, 

                                                capitis deminutio minima, Revelation 18, Ezekiel 33:6, Colossians 4:7) 

                                                (Cestui Que Vie Act 1.666 -1.666 CHAPTER 11, 18 and 19 Cha 2)

Last name/given:                  בַּת/bath/daughter of Sjef

                                                from the congregation/tribe/עֵדָה/`edah of the children of Israel / the house of Israel

                                                (Job 32:21-22, Isaiah 44:1-8, Exodus 17:1) 

                                                house of יְהֹוָה (YHWH) אֱלֹהִים (God) :de Ghier. (Ezechiel 28:25, 1 kings 12:19, Numbers 1:2)                                                     Agnati / agnate(s) / male partilineal 

Nationality:                           עִבְרִי / `Ibriy / Hebrew (וְהָעִבְרִיָּה) (Jeremiah 34:9)

                                               (Exodus 9:1, Jonah 1:9, Romans 11, Isaiah 56:1-7)

                                               Temple of the ‎רוּחַ הַקֹּדֶשׁ (Holy Ghost/ Ruach Hakodesh)

                                               (1 Corinthians 6:19)

                                               Received from יְהֹוָה (YeHoVaH) (Acts 5:32,

                                               2 Corinthians 6:16) 

                                               my אֱלֹהִים (Elohiym/God/Judge) (Leviticus 11:44) 

                                               Article 4 and 15 (UVRM / UDHR)

Inhabitant of the land of:     אֶרֶץ Earth (Isaiah 24:17; 26:21, Psalm 33:13-14, Deuteronomy 10:14, Ezekiel 43)

Authority:                              Minister of הוֹשׁוּעַ (Yahushua) מָשִׁיחַ (Ha-Mashiach) of Heavens, Earth and Sea

                                               Mark 13:34, Revelation 1:6, sui juris (Ezekiel 43) Venia Aetatis, Divine Law, Dei Gratia

Sojourner / תּוֹשָׁב:                  on the land of South Holland near Rotterdam

                                               (Genesis 26:3, Exodus 12:48, Leviticus 19:33-37) Article 13 (UVRM / UDHR)


Conceived:                           Allegedly (Hearsay) (Nowhere in scriptures are birthdays mentioned except for kings:

                                              (Job 1:4-5; Genesis 40:20, Mark 6:21, Matthew 2:1; 14:6)

Born in/בַּיִת:                          Eindhoven on a ship,  South East of the province of North-Brabant 

(municipality/                        in the days of Juliana the queen of the Netherlands

geographical location)        (Genesis 48:5, 1 Chronicles 3:1 + 5:17, Matthew 2:1)  

Citizen of heaven:                Kingdom citizenship

                                              (Philippians 3:20-21, Hebrews 11:16 + 12:22 )                           

                                              The heavenly temple or sanctuary Jerusalem (יְרוּשָׁלַם) existing in / above heaven


Finished:                               Mavo 4 D-niveau in 1987 (year 5937 since creation)

Hight:                                    160 cm (5' 3")                 

Hair:                                       Brown                  

Eyes:                                     Grey/Blue



Name:               יְהֹוָה יְהוֹשׁוּעַ (YHWH / Yahushua) (Luke 13:35, Micha 4:5)

Title:                 Wonderful, Counsellor, The mighty God, The everlasting Father, The Prince of Peace.

                          KING OF KINGS AND LORD OF LORDS

                          (Isaiah 9:6 + 43:15, Exodus 20:11, Psalm 148:11-14, 1 Timothy 6:15, Revelation 19:16)

Territory:           שָׁמַיִם (Heavens), אֶרֶץ (Earth), יָם (Sea), and the fountains of waters (Worldwide jurisdiction). 

                          (Exodus 19:5 + 20:11, Psalm 146:5-6, 1 Peter 3:22, Revelation 14:7)


In the name of the King of Kings LORD of LORDS of the Earth Heavens and Sea

יְהוֹשׁוּעַ (Yahushua) מָשִׁיחַ (Ha-Mashiach) Wonderful, Counsellor, The mighty God, The everlasting Father, The Prince of Peace of the Heavens, Earth and Sea: (Worldwide jurisdiction)


This minister of הוֹשׁוּעַ (Yahushua) מָשִׁיחַ (Ha-Mashiach) bearer of this document requests all human beings and all none human beings (entities) on/in/under/above of this Earth Heavens and Sea to allow the bearer of the present document to pass without let or hindrance and to afford the bearer every assistance and protection which may be necessary


Place of birth is a municipality (gemeente) it is a geographical location (geografische locatie) it is no country / land.

Stop being a citizen (inwoner) so stop paying tax. 



הָעִבְרִי (Hebrew google translation)

הָעִבְרִי (male Hebrew)

וְהָעִבְרִיָּה (female Hebrew)


Jeremiah 34:

9 That every man should let his manservant, and every man his maidservant, being an Hebrew or an Hebrewess, go free; that none should serve himself of them, to wit, of a Jew his brother.

לְשַׁלַּח אִישׁ אֶת־עַבְדֹּו וְאִישׁ אֶת־שִׁפְחָתֹו הָעִבְרִי וְהָעִבְרִיָּה חָפְשִׁים לְבִלְתִּי עֲבָד־בָּם בִּיהוּדִי אָחִיהוּ אִֽישׁ׃


Dat iedere man zijn dienstmaagd en iedere man zijn dienstmaagd, zijnde een Hebreeër of een Hebreeuwse, vrij zou laten gaan; dat niemand zichzelf van hen zou dienen, namelijk van een Jood, zijn broer.

Biblia Hebraica: Secundum Editiones

Worldwide Passport ID Driving Pass


Hebrew  עברי / דרכון / תעודת זהות / נסיעות / תחבורה


1. 5937 (I.987/1987)


11. חתימת בעל הדרכון / Signature of bearer / Signature du titulaire











יְהוָה אֶֽת־מַמְלְכוּת יִשְׂרָאֵל / Kingdom of Israel

Passport / Identity card / Travel / Transport

סוג / type                                     סמל / code

(p/ד) / id / world driver pass          שָׁמַיִם / אֶרֶץ / יָם



3. שם משפחה / surname / nom

House of :de Ghier. (Gier / Ghyer)

from the congregation / tribe / עֵדָה (`edah)

of the children of Israel / the house of Israel


4. שם פרטי‎‎‎ / Given names / prénoms

:Marita בַּת / bath / daughter of Sjef


5. תאריך לידה / Date of birth / date de naissance

in the days of Juliana the queen of the Netherlands

Matthew 2:1 it is a SIN Job 1:4-5


6. מקום לידה / place of birth / lieu de naissance

Eindhoven on a ship

South East of the province of North-Brabant


7. מין / seks / sexe    אזרחות / nationality / nationalité

 V/F/ נְ                          Hebrewess / וְהָעִבְרִיָּה


9. תאריך הוצאה‎ / date of issue / date de délivrance

01 Nisan 5970 / 2020

Royaume d'Israël

Passeport / carte d'identité / voyage / transport

מס דרכון / Document no.

5970-2020-01- (Apostille no.)


1. מס זהות / Personal no./identifiant personnel

it is a SIN James 2:9, Revelation 18

Revelation 13:16-17, Exodus 18:13-27

Deuteronomy 1: 17 (9-18)


8. גוֹבַה / Height / taille

1.60 m


10. תאריך פקיעת תוקף‎ / date of expiry / date d'expiration

Lifelong validity


12. (רָשׁוּת (סמכות / Authority / autorité

שָׁמַיִם (Heavens), אֶרֶץ (Earth), יָם (Sea)

and the fountains of waters

Worldwide jurisdiction


By the grace of יְהֹוָה

(YeHoVaH / God / Dei gratia / Droit divin)


Minister of יְהוֹשׁוּעַ מֶלֶךְ

(King Yahushua)

מָשִׁיחַ (Ha-Mashiach)

of Heavens, Earth and Sea, and the fountains of waters, sui juris,

Divine Law / תּוֹרָה (Towrah / Moses)

Colossians 4:7




This minister of הוֹשׁוּעַ (Yahushua) מָשִׁיחַ (Ha-Mashiach) bearer of this document requests all human beings and all none human beings (entities) on/in/under/above of this Earth Heavens and Sea to allow the bearer of the present document to pass without let or hindrance and to afford the bearer every assistance and protection which may be necessary




De manier waarop u een apostille aanvraagt, verschilt per . Selecteer de rechtbank waar u het document wil laten legaliseren.


Legalisering van een document met een zegel of waarborgstempel van een bevoegde instantie of functionaris. Het land waarvoor het document bedoeld is, is aangesloten bij het Apostilleverdrag.





Defenition Document:

a piece of written, printed, or electronic matter that provides information or evidence or that serves as an official record.


Two or three witnesses

Deuteronomy 17:
6 At the mouth of two witnesses, or three witnesses, shall he that is worthy of death be put to death; but at the mouth of one witness he shall not be put to death.


Deuteronomy 19:
15 One witness shall not rise up against a man for any iniquity, or for any sin, in any sin that he sinneth: at the mouth of two witnesses, or at the mouth of three witnesses, shall the matter be established.


Matthew 18:

16 But if he will not hear thee, then take with thee one or two more, that in the mouth of two or three witnesses every word may be established.


2Corinthians 13:
1 This is the third time I am coming to you. In the mouth of two or three witnesses shall every word be established.


1Timothy 5:
19 Against an elder receive not an accusation, but before two or three witnesses.


Hebrews 10:
28 He that despised Moses' law died without mercy under two or three witnesses


Matthew 2:

Now when Jesus was born in Bethlehem of Judaea in the days of Herod the king, behold, there came wise men from the east to Jerusalem,


Joshua 8: (NET)
33 All the people, rulers, leaders, and judges were standing on either side of the ark, in front of the Levitical priests who carried the ark of the covenant of (YHWH) the LORD. Both resident foreigners and native Israelites were there. Half the people stood in front of Mount Gerizim and the other half in front of Mount Ebal, as Moses the LORD's servant had previously instructed to them to do for the formal blessing ceremony.


Joshua 8: (KJV)

33 And all Israel, and their elders, and officers, and their judges, stood on this side the ark and on that side before the priests the Levites, which bare the ark of the covenant of (YHWH) the LORD, as well the stranger, as he that was born among them; half of them over against mount Gerizim, and half of them over against mount Ebal; as Moses the servant of the LORD had commanded before, that they should bless the people of Israel.

34 And afterward he read all the words of the law, the blessings and cursings, according to all that is written in the book of the law.
35 There was not a word of all that Moses commanded, which Joshua read not before all the congregation of Israel, with the women, and the little ones, and the strangers that were conversant among them.


Ezra 7: (KJV)

23 Whatsoever is commanded by the God of heaven, let it be diligently done for the house of the God of heaven: for why should there be wrath against the realm of the king and his sons?

24 Also we certify you, that touching any of the priests and Levites, singers, porters, Nethinims, or ministers of this house of God, it shall not be lawful to impose toll, tribute, or custom, upon them.

25 And thou, Ezra, after the wisdom of thy God, that is in thine hand, set magistrates and judges, which may judge all the people that are beyond the river, all such as know the laws of thy God; and teach ye them that know them not.

26 And whosoever will not do the law of thy God (YHWH), and the law of the king (YAHUSHUA) (? zie hieronder voor de vertaling)let judgment be executed speedily upon him, whether it be unto death, or to banishment, or to confiscation of goods, or to imprisonment.


(Ezr 7:26 (WLC/Hebreeuws)

וְכָל־דִּי־לָא לֶהֱוֵא עָבֵד דָּתָא דִֽי־אֱלָהָךְ וְדָתָא דִּי מַלְכָּא אָסְפַּרְנָא דִּינָה לֶהֱוֵא מִתְעֲבֵד מִנֵּהּ הֵן לְמֹות הֵן לשֶׂרשֶׂו הֵן־לַעֲנָשׁ נִכְסִין וְלֶאֱסוּרִֽין׃ פ


Ezra 7:26 (google translate)

And all that is not to be worshiped by the Lord, the Lord is your God, and the judge is the one who is going to be a slave to us, so that he may become a servant from us, and they will die for his inheritance, for they will be punished, and they will be imprisoned.


Ezra 7:26 (google vertalen)

En alles wat niet door de Heer dient te aanbidden, de Heer is uw God, en de rechter is degene die ons een slaaf zal zijn, zodat hij een dienstknecht van ons kan worden, en zij zullen voor zijn erfdeel sterven, want zij zullen gestraft worden en zij zullen gevangen worden.)


This King Artaxerxes king of Persia wanted to keep the Law of YHWH what Moses had and Ezra had to arrange everything.


Ezra 7:

1 Now after these things, in the reign of Artaxerxes king of Persia, Ezra the son of Seraiah, the son of Azariah, the son of Hilkiah,
2 The son of Shallum, the son of Zadok, the son of Ahitub,
3 The son of Amariah, the son of Azariah, the son of Meraioth,
4 The son of Zerahiah, the son of Uzzi, the son of Bukki,
5 The son of Abishua, the son of Phinehas, the son of Eleazar, the son of Aaron the chief priest:
6 This Ezra went up from Babylon; and he was a ready scribe in the law of Moses, which the Lord God of Israel had given: and the king granted him all his request, according to the hand of the Lord his God upon him.
7 And there went up some of the children of Israel, and of the priests, and the Levites, and the singers, and the porters, and the Nethinims, unto Jerusalem, in the seventh year of Artaxerxes the king.
8 And he came to Jerusalem in the fifth month, which was in the seventh year of the king.
9 For upon the first day of the first month began he to go up from Babylon, and on the first day of the fifth month came he to Jerusalem, according to the good hand of his God upon him.
10 For Ezra had prepared his heart to seek the law of the Lord, and to do it, and to teach in Israel statutes and judgments.
11 Now this is the copy of the letter that the king Artaxerxes gave unto Ezra the priest, the scribe, even a scribe of the words of the commandments of the Lord, and of his statutes to Israel.

12 Artaxerxes, king of kings, unto Ezra the priest, a scribe of the law of the God of heaven, perfect peace, and at such a time.
13 I make a decree, that all they of the people of Israel, and of his priests and Levites, in my realm, which are minded of their own freewill to go up to Jerusalem, go with thee.
14 Forasmuch as thou art sent of the king, and of his seven counsellors, to enquire concerning Judah and Jerusalem, according to the law of thy God which is in thine hand;
15 And to carry the silver and gold, which the king and his counsellors have freely offered unto the God of Israel, whose habitation is in Jerusalem,
16 And all the silver and gold that thou canst find in all the province of Babylon, with the freewill offering of the people, and of the priests, offering willingly for the house of their God which is in Jerusalem:
17 That thou mayest buy speedily with this money bullocks, rams, lambs, with their meat offerings and their drink offerings, and offer them upon the altar of the house of your God which is in Jerusalem.
18 And whatsoever shall seem good to thee, and to thy brethren, to do with the rest of the silver and the gold, that do after the will of your God.
19 The vessels also that are given thee for the service of the house of thy God, those deliver thou before the God of Jerusalem.
20 And whatsoever more shall be needful for the house of thy God, which thou shalt have occasion to bestow, bestow it out of the king's treasure house.
21 And I, even I Artaxerxes the king, do make a decree to all the treasurers which are beyond the river, that whatsoever Ezra the priest, the scribe of the law of the God of heaven, shall require of you, it be done speedily,
22 Unto an hundred talents of silver, and to an hundred measures of wheat, and to an hundred baths of wine, and to an hundred baths of oil, and salt without prescribing how much.
23 Whatsoever is commanded by the God of heaven, let it be diligently done for the house of the God of heaven: for why should there be wrath against the realm of the king and his sons?
24 Also we certify you, that touching any of the priests and Levites, singers, porters, Nethinims, or ministers of this house of God, it shall not be lawful to impose toll, tribute, or custom, upon them.
25 And thou, Ezra, after the wisdom of thy God, that is in thine hand, set magistrates and judges, which may judge all the people that are beyond the river, all such as know the laws of thy God; and teach ye them that know them not.
26 And whosoever will not do the law of thy God, and the law of the king, let judgment be executed speedily upon him, whether it be unto death, or to banishment, or to confiscation of goods, or to imprisonment.
27 Blessed be the Lord God of our fathers, which hath put such a thing as this in the king's heart, to beautify the house of the Lord which is in Jerusalem:
28 And hath extended mercy unto me before the king, and his counsellors, and before all the king's mighty princes. And I was strengthened as the hand of the Lord my God was upon me, and I gathered together out of Israel chief men to go up with me.


Colossians 4:

7 All my state shall Tychicus declare unto you, who is a beloved brother, and a faithful minister and fellowservant in the Lord:


Allegedly (Hearsay) it is a SIN Job 1:4-5




First Name:

(Exodus 17:9, Isaiah 45:1, James 2:9, Capitis Deminutio Maxima, -Media, -Minima (PERSOON), Revelation 18, Colossians 4:7) Maritime Admiralty = law of water = is banking law and Civil law = Law of the land

(Cestui Que Vie Act i.666 - i.666 CHAPTER 11 18 and 19 Cha 2) (art. 42 Grondwet/Constitution of the Kingdom of the Netherlands)Divine Law.


Last name/given/maiden name:

Job 32:21-22; Isaiah 44:1-8; Exodus 17:1; 1 kings 12:19; Ezechiel 28:25; Numbers 1:2



1 Corinthians 6:19; Acts 5:32; 2 Corinthians 6:16; Leviticus 11:44; Article 4 and 15 (UVRM)

Exodus 9:1; Jonah 1:9; Romans 11; Ephesians 2: 1-2 +19


Inhabitant of:

Isaiah 24:17; 26:21; Psalm 33:13-14; Deuteronomy 10:14


Sojourner / תּוֹשָׁב:

Genesis 26:3; Exodus 12:48; Leviticus 19:33-37; Article 13 (UVRM)



Nowhere in scriptures are birthdays mentioned except for Pharaoh, Herod and Job his children:

Genesis 40:20; Mark 6:21; Matthew 14:6; Job 1:4-5


it is a SIN James 2:9, Revelation 18

Revelation 13:16-17, Exodus 18:13-27

Deuteronomy 1: 17 (9-18)


Born in:

The land of/municipality/in a geographical location

Genesis 48:5; 1 Chronicles 3:1; Matthew 2:1 


Citizen of Heaven:

Philippians 3:20-21



Name:             Luke 13:35

Title:               Isaiah 9:6 + 43:15; Exodus 20:11; Psalm 148:11-14; 1 Timothy 6:15; Revelation 19:16

Territory:        Exodus 19:5; 1 Peter 3:22, Exodus 20:11, Psalm 146:5-6



Other references:


Joshua 8:33, Ezra 7: 23-26, Deuteronomy 17:6 + 19:15, Matthew 18:16, 2Corinthians 13:1, 1Timothy 5:19, Hebrews 10:28, Isaiah 54: 5+17.


Sui iuris, also spelled as sui juris:

[1] is a Latin phrase that literally means "of one's own right".

[2] It is used in both civil law and canon law by the Catholic Church.


Capitis Deminutio Maxima = JOHN DOE (Occurs when a man's condition changes from freedom to bondage)

Capitis Deminutio Media = John DOE (Occurs when a man loses his rights of citizenship but not his rights to liberty)

Capitis Deminutio Minima = John Doe (occurs when a man's family relations alone were changed


Sapientiae Christianae, On Christians as Citizens, ENCYCLICAL OF POPE LEO XIII, 10 January 1890: 11





    To the Patriarchs, Primates, Archbishops, and 
    Bishops of the Catholic world in Grace and 
    Communion with the Apostolic See.


    1. Wherefore, to love both countries, that of earth below and that of heaven above, yet in such mode that the love of our heavenly surpass the love of our earthly home, and that human laws be never set above the divine law, is the essential duty of Christians, and the fountainhead, so to say, from which all other duties spring.





    (Book: A Light in the Heavens: Great Encyclical Letters of Pope Leo XIII)


    Ephesians 2:

    1 And you hath he quickened, who were dead in trespasses and sins;

    2 Wherein in time past ye walked according to the course of this world, according to the prince of the power of the air, the spirit that now worketh in the children of disobedience

    19 Now therefore ye are no more strangers and foreigners, but fellow citizens with the saints, and of the household of God;


    συµπολίτης, ὁ stadgenoot, medeburger


    Dei gratia: (Latijn)

    Door Gods genade.

    Droit divin:

    het goddelijk recht 


    Sui iuris of sui juris is een Latijnse uitdrukking die letterlijk van eigen recht zijn betekent, dus zelfstandig bepaalde rechtshandelingen kunnen stellen, een rechtspersoon zijn.


    Allegedly (naar verluidt)

    Maiden name = surname

    Given name is husband

    First name


    parens patriae




    1. the monarch, or any other authority, regarded as the legal protector of citizens unable to protect themselves.
      "parens patriae jurisdiction"
      • the principle that political authority carries with it the responsibility for such protection.


    Revelation 14:

    7 Saying with a loud voice, Fear God, and give glory to him; for the hour of his judgment is come: and worship him that made heaven, and earth, and the sea, and the fountains of waters.

    Deminutio capitis

    Deminutio capitis heet in het romeinse recht de vermindering van de drieledige rechtsbevoegdheid van een vrij man. De deminutio capitis maxima ontneemt de status libertatis, civitatis en familiae en maakt krijgsgevangen Romeinen buiten romeins gebied, de dediti per patrem patratum en de fures manifesti tot slaaf. De deminutio capitis media of minor ontneemt de status civitatis en familiae aan hem die het burgerschap van een andere stad verkiest (reiectio civitatis), en aan vogelvrij verklaarden (aqua et igni interdictio). De deminutio capitis minima wijzigt alleen de status familiae, als iemand b.v. door adoptie onder het gezag van een ander geplaatst (alieni iuris) of door emancipatio juridisch zelfstandig (sui iuris) wordt. 

    Capitis deminutio or capitis diminutio (diminished capacity) is a term used in Roman law, referring to the extinguishing, either in whole or in part, of a person's former status and legal capacity. There were three changes of state or condition attended with different consequences: maximamedia, and minima.

    Capitis Deminutio Maxima

    The greatest, capitis deminutio maxima, involved the loss of liberty, citizenship, and family (e.g. being made a slave or prisoner of war).

    Capitis Deminutio Media

    The next change of state, capitis deminutio media, consisted of a loss of citizenship and family without any forfeiture of personal liberty.

    Capitis Deminutio Minima

    The least change of state, capitis deminutio minima, consisted of a person ceasing to belong to a particular family, without loss of liberty or citizenship.[1]


    Capitis Deminutio Maxima = JOHN DOE (Occurs when a man's condition changes from freedom to bondage)

    Capitis Deminutio Media = John DOE (Occurs when a man loses his rights of citizenship but not his rights to liberty)

    Capitis Deminutio Minima = John Doe (occurs when a man's family relations alone were changed


    Maritime Admiralty = law of water = is banking law

    Civil law = Law of the land



    "Staatsmacht is volgens de driemachtenleer te onderscheiden in:

    Daarnaast hebben staten de macht om verdragen te sluiten met andere staten."

    De rechtsprekende macht moet in handen liggen van onafhankelijke rechters. 




    De titel ‘koning bij de gratie Gods’. Daarmee werd enerzijds uiting gegeven aan de erkenning dat er geen overheid is dan door God, en anderzijds aan het besef dat de koning niet regeert bij de gratie van paus of kerk, maar bij die van de Koning der koningen. In vorige eeuwen is de leer verkondigd dat de vorst zijn macht ontleent aan het droit divin: het goddelijk recht waardoor hij regeert. Hij is alleen aan God verantwoording schuldig voor zijn regeringsdaden, niet aan een volksvertegenwoordiging.


    Droit divin: Goddelijk recht




    22 And YAHWEH said to Mosheh: 'I know their contrariness and their thoughts and their stiffneckedness, and they will not be obedient till they confess their own sin and the sin of their fathers.

    23 And after this they will turn to Me in all uprightness and with all their heart and with all their soul, and I will circumcise the foreskin of their heart and the foreskin of the heart of their seed, and I will create in them a kodesh spirit, and I will cleanse them so that they shall not turn away from Me from that day unto eternity.

    24 And their souls will cleave to Me and to all My commandments, and they will fulfill My commandments, and I will be their ABBA (Father) and they shall be My children.

    25 And they all shall be called children of the living YAHWEH, and every malak and every spirit shall know, yes, they shall know that these are My children, and that I am their ABBA in uprightness and righteousness, and that I love them.


    Galatians 4:

    6 And because ye are sons, God hath sent forth the Spirit of his Son into your hearts, crying, Abba, Father.

    7 Wherefore thou art no more a servant, but a son; and if a son, then an heir of God through Christ.


    John 8:

    23 And he said unto them, Ye are from beneath; I am from above: ye are of this world; I am not of this world.


    John 10:

    16 And other sheep I have, which are not of this fold: them also I must bring, and they shall hear my voice; and there shall be one fold, and one shepherd.


    John 18:

    36 Jesus answered, My kingdom is not of this world: if my kingdom were of this world, then would my servants fight, that I should not be delivered to the Jews: but now is my kingdom not from hence.


    Matthew 26:

    28 For this is my blood of the new Testament, which is shed for many for the remission of sinnes.


    All the congregation of Israel shall keep it. (Exodus 12:47)

    And all the congregation of the children of Israel (Exodus 17:1)

    One law shall be to him that is homeborn, and unto the stranger that sojourneth among you. the congregation of Israel, whether he be a stranger, or born in the land. (Exodus 12:19)

    The children of Israel journeyed from Rameses to Succoth, about six hundred thousand on foot that were men, beside children. (Exodus 12:37) (John 5:43)

    And a mixed multitude went up also with them (Exodus 12:38)


    Exodes 19:

    5 Now therefore, if ye will obey my voice indeed, and keep my covenant, then ye shall be a peculiar treasure unto me above all people: for all the earth is mine:


    Exodus 20:

    11 For in six days the (LORD) יְהֹוָה/YHWH made heavens (shä·mah'·yim/שָׁמַיִם) and earth (אֶרֶץ/'erets), the sea (yam/יָם), and all that in them is, and rested the seventh day: wherefore the LORD blessed the sabbath day, and hallowed it.


    Isaiah 9:

    1. For unto us a child is born, unto us a son is given: and the government shall be upon his shoulder: and his name shall be called Wonderful, Counsellor, The mighty God, The everlasting Father, The Prince of Peace.


    2 Timothy 3:

    14 But continue thou in the things which thou hast learned and hast been assured of, knowing of whom thou hast learned them;

    15 And that from a child thou hast known the holy scriptures, which are able to make thee wise unto salvation through faith which is in Christ Jesus.

    16 All scripture is given by inspiration of God, and is profitable for doctrine, for reproof, for correction, for instruction in righteousness:

    17 That the man of God may be perfect, throughly furnished unto all good works.


    Luke 13:

    35 “See! Your house is left to you desolate; and assuredly, I say to you, you shall not see Me until the time comes when you say, ‘Blessed is He who comes in the name of YeHoVaH !' ”


    John 19:

    19 And Pilate wrote a title, and put it on the cross. And the writing was, JESUS OF NAZARETH THE KING OF THE JEWS.


    Genesis 26:

    5 Because that Abraham obeyed my voice, and kept my charge, my commandments, my statutes, and my laws.


    Ezechiel 44:

    16 They shall enter into my sanctuary, and they shall come near to my table, to minister unto me, and they shall keep my charge.


    Zechariah 3:

    7 Thus saith the LORD of hosts; If thou wilt walk in my ways, and if thou wilt keep my charge, then thou shalt also judge my house, and shalt also keep my courts, and I will give thee places to walk among these that stand by.


    1 Timothy 6:

    15 Which in his times he shall shew (show/at the proper time), who is the blessed and only Potentate (Sovereign), the King of kings, and Lord of lords;


    Jeremiah 16:

    21 Therefore, behold, I will this once cause them to know, I will cause them to know mine hand and my might; and they shall know that my name is יְהֹוָה/Yĕhovah (The LORD).


    Genesis 11:

    29 And Abram and Nahor took them wives: the name of Abram's wife was Sarai; and the name of Nahor's wife, Milcah, the daughter of Haran, the father of Milcah, and the father of Iscah.


    Genesis 26:

    5 Because that Abraham obeyed my voice, and kept my charge, my commandments, my statutes, and my laws.


    Exodus 34:

    28 And he was there with YeHoVaH forty days and forty nights; he did neither eat bread, nor drink water. And he wrote upon the tables the words of the covenant, the ten commandments.


    John 1:

    17 For the law was given by Moses, but grace and truth came by Jesus Christ.


    Isaiah 54:

    5 For thy Maker is thine husband; the יְהֹוָה (LORD) of צָבָא (hosts) is his name; and thy Redeemer the קָדוֹשׁ (Holy One) of Israel; The אֱלֹהִים (God) of the whole earth shall he be called.

    17 No weapon that is formed against thee shall prosper; and every tongue that shall rise against thee in judgment thou shalt condemn. This is the heritage of the servants of the יְהֹוָה (LORD), and their righteousness is of me, saith the יְהֹוָה (LORD).


    Jonah 1: (KJV)

    And he said unto them, I am an Hebrew; and I fear the Lord, the God of heaven, which hath made the sea and the dry land.


    Isaiah 45:(KJV)

    1 Thus saith the Lord to his anointed, to Cyrus, whose right hand I have holden, to subdue nations before him; and I will loose the loins of kings, to open before him the two leaved gates; and the gates shall not be shut;

    I will go before thee, and make the crooked places straight: I will break in pieces the gates of brass, and cut in sunder the bars of iron:

    And I will give thee the treasures of darkness, and hidden riches of secret places, that thou mayest know that I, the Lord, which call thee by thy name, am the God of Israel.

    For Jacob my servant's sake, and Israel mine elect, I have even called thee by thy name: I have surnamed thee, though thou hast not known me.

    I am the Lord, and there is none else, there is no God beside me: I girded thee, though thou hast not known me:

    That they may know from the rising of the sun, and from the west, that there is none beside me. I am the Lord, and there is none else.

    I form the light, and create darkness: I make peace, and create evil: I the Lord do all these things.


    1 Chronicles 5:

    17 All these were reckoned by genealogies in the days of Jotham king of Judah, and in the days of Jeroboam king of Israel.


    Isaiah 44:

    5 One shall say, I am YeHoVaH 'S; and another shall call himself by the name of Jacob; and another shall subscribe with his hand unto YeHoVaH, and surname himself by the name of Israel.


    Philippians 3:

    20 For our conversation is in heaven; from whence also we look for the Saviour, the Lord Jesus Christ: (KJV)

    20 But our citizenship is in heaven. And we eagerly await a Savior from there, the Lord Jesus Christ, (NIV)

    21 who, by the power that enables him to bring everything under his control, will transform our lowly bodies so that they will be like his glorious body.


    Strong's G4175 - politeuma

    1. the administration of civil affairs or of a commonwealth

    2. the constitution of a commonwealth, form of government and the laws by which it is administered

    3. a state, commonwealth

      1. the commonwealth of citizens



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    Das Politeuma (griechisch πολίτευμα), die Bürgerschaft (bürgerliche Körperschaft), steht in der hellenistischen Welt für teilautonome Organisationsstrukturen ethnischer Minderheiten in einer Polis. Zahlreiche Untersuchungen zu diesem Thema beschäftigen sich speziell mit den selbständigen Kommunalverwaltungen der Juden in der Diaspora.

    Politeia und Politeuma

    Der Begriff Politeuma wurde zeitlich und räumlich unterschiedlich gebraucht. Er hat allerdings nicht das große Bedeutungsspektrum von Politeia (πολιτεία), das ebenfalls Bürgerschaft, aber auch Bürgerrecht, Staatsverfassung, Staatsverwaltung, Staat etc. bedeuten kann und auch der Titel von Platos Idealstaat ist. Da sich die Rechte der Bürger zunächst einmal nur auf die eigene Polis bezogen, machte die Zusammenarbeit mehrerer Poleis die Isopoliteia ((ἰσοπολιτεία)) erforderlich, welche die rechtliche Gleichstellung der Bürger in den beteiligten Städten unter Fortbestand der Eigenständigkeit ihrer Städte bedeutete.

    Nach Aristoteles sind unter Politeuma alle Bürger des Staatswesens, der Politeia, zu verstehen, die an den Entscheidungsorganen und damit vorrangig an der Volksversammlung und den Gerichten teilnehmen – also die „Aktivbürgerschaft“.[1]

    Auch im Neuen Testament kommt Politeuma vor – allerdings nur einmal. Paulus schreibt an die Philipper: ἡμῶν γὰρ τὸ πολίτευμα ἐν οὐρανοῖς ὑπάρχει  unsere Heimat ist im Himmel[2] bzw. etwas näher an der üblichen Bedeutung von Politeuma: das Reich, in dem wir Bürger sind...[3]

    Alexander der Große schrieb während seines Feldzugs in Kleinasien an das Volk von Chios:[4][5] „Das Politeuma in Chios soll das Volk sein.“ (πολίτευμα δἐ εἶναι ἐν Χίωι δῆμον). Er verlangte also die Errichtung einer demokratischen Verfassung.

    Im Seleukidenreich gewährte bereits dessen Gründer Seleukos I. Nikator (ca. 358–281 v. Chr.) den Juden in seiner Hauptstadt Antiochia und in den von ihm gegründeten Städten in Asien und Syrien das Bürgerrecht – so berichtet zumindest Flavius Josephus,[6][7] der hier von Politeia spricht.

    Zur Integration der Minderheiten unterschiedlicher Landsmannschaften im multiethnischen Reich der Ptolemäer wurde diesen in Form von Politeumata eine teilweise Selbstverwaltung und eigene Gerichtsbarkeit gestattet. So existierten in Ägypten teilautonome Selbstverwaltungen der Boioter, der Idumäer, der Juden, der Kilikier, der Kreter, der Lykier und der Phryger.[8][9]

    Neben diesen ethnischen Politeumata gab es noch sehr unterschiedliche Organisationen, die sich selbst in Inschriften als Politeuma bezeichneten:[10]

    • In drei der zahlreichen Inschriften im Tempelkomplex des Zeus Panamaros in Stratonikeia (Karien) aus der Zeit von 200 v. Chr. bis 300 n. Chr., mit denen sich alle Teilnehmerinnen an den Heraien gegenüber der großzügigen Priesterschaft bedanken, steht „das Politeuma der Frauen“ anstelle von „alle Frauen“.
    • Eine Stele von 93 n. Chr. aus einem Tempelbezirk in Philadelphia (Oase Fayum) erinnert an Erneuerungsarbeiten eines Politeuma, das offensichtlich eine Kultgemeinschaft der Göttin Isis Sachypsis war.
    • Eine Votivstele von 112/111 oder 76/75 v. Chr. aus Alexandria für Zeus Soter und Hera Teleia stammt von einem Politeuma von Soldaten nicht genannter Herkunft.
    • In der Nähe von Sidon wurden mehrere Grabstelen aus dem zweiten Jahrhundert v. Chr. gefunden. Von acht Stelen, welche ihre Stifter erwähnen, sind vier vom jeweiligen Politeuma der Heimatgemeinde errichtet, also z. B. vom Verein der in Sidon lebenden Bürger, die aus Termessos stammten.

    Für diese Organisationskategorien, aber auch für die oben aufgeführten ethnischen Politeumata lassen sich Inschriftenbeispiele angeben, die nicht den Begriff Politeuma verwenden, sondern andere Ausdrücke wie z. B. κοινόν (Koinon/Gemeinschaft) oder σύνοδος (Synodos/Verein).[11] Nur vom Namen her kann also nicht auf einen fundamentalen Unterschied zwischen Politeuma und anderen Organisationstypen geschlossen werden. Es ist allerdings anzunehmen, dass ethnische Selbstverwaltungskörperschaften mit Sondergerichtsbarkeit nur aufgrund von Dekreten der Herrscher in den Diadochenreichen bestehen konnten, also staatsrechtliche Konstrukte waren. Solche Dokumente wurden allerdings noch nicht gefunden. (Zur Problematik der Unterscheidung von Privatvereinen und öffentlich-rechtlichen Verbänden bei Militärvereinen siehe M. San Nicolò.[12])

    Jüdische Politeumata im Ptolemäischen Ägypten

    Bei der Untersuchung, welche Bürgerrechte tatsächlich im ptolemäischen (und seleukidischen) Reich an die Juden abgegeben wurden, stößt man in den umfangreichen Geschichtswerken von Flavius Josephus teilweise auf Ungenauigkeiten. Auch der Aristeasbrief, der ein Politeuma in Alexandria erwähnt, hat als eher poetisches Werk keine unbestreitbare Beweiskraft. Es ist bei dieser Qualität vielgenannter Quellen daher nicht erstaunlich, dass in der Forschung kontrovers diskutiert wurde, ob es in der hellenistischen Diaspora jüdische Politeumata im Sinne kommunaler Selbstverwaltungen tatsächlich gab.

    So stand auf der einen Seite Emil Schürers Ansicht, die Juden von Alexandria hätten das alexandrinische Bürgerrecht besessen[13] und sie bildeten dennoch „einen selbständigen Communalverband in oder neben der übrigen Stadt, ähnlich wie in Cyrene.“[14] Schürer zitiert an dieser Stelle Strabons Aussagen zur Selbständigkeit der jüdischen Gemeinde von Alexandria, die Flavius Josephus[15] wiedergibt: Ein ganzer Stadtteil von Alexandria sei für dieses Volk reserviert. Sie hätten an Ihrer Spitze einen Ethnarchen, „welcher das Volk regiert und Gericht hält und für die Erfüllung der Verpflichtungen und Befolgung der Verordnungen sorgt wie der Archon einer unabhängigen Stadt.“

    Im Jahr 1985 unterstrich A. Kasher[16] nochmals die Existenz jüdischer Politeumata in der Hauptstadt Alexandria und in der ägyptischen Chora zu hellenistischer und römischer Zeit, meinte aber, die Juden hätten das alexandrinische Bürgerrecht weder besessen noch angestrebt. Bei der Interpretation von Flavius Josephus ging er davon aus, dass dieser die Begriffe Politeuma und Politeia als synonym betrachtete[17] und im Zusammenhang mit dem Edikt des Claudius[18] unter Isopoliteia (ἴσης πολιτείας παρὰ τῶν βασιλέων) die Gleichstellung von Polis und Politeuma in Alexandria verstand.[19] Kasher bezieht sich in seiner Argumentation auch auf die Grabinschrift des Abramos aus Leontopolis,[20] die besagt, der Verstorbene sei Politarch (πολιτάρχης) von zwei Orten gewesen und habe für das ganze Volk (ἐθνικῆ) geamtet. Er bewertet die jüdische Gemeinde von Leontopolis als Politeuma.

    Auf der Seite der Kritiker sah beispielsweise G. Lüderitz nach einer Untersuchung umfangreichen Quellenmaterials letztlich nur die Existenz des Politeuma von Berenike, dem heutigen Bengasi, als gesichert an. Diese in zwei Ehrendekreten erwähnte Körperschaft, deren 7 bzw. 9 Archonten namentlich genannt werden, stufte er allerdings nur als eine aristokratische jüdische Bule (βουλή) ein, also nicht als Gesamtheit der Juden der Stadt.[21] Die 1994 publizierten Erkenntnisse von Lüderitz resümierte B. Wander: „So wurde ein terminologisch gesichertes jüdisches Politeuma ein Phänomen der Geschichtsschreibung, keineswegs aber der Geschichte.“[22]

    Inzwischen konnte die Existenz einer autonomen Selbstverwaltungskörperschaft der Juden im ptolemäischen Ägypten durch die Analyse der Dokumente des jüdischen Politeuma von Herakleopolis (Gauhauptstadt in Oberägypten), die 2001 veröffentlicht wurde,[23] klar bewiesen werden. T. Kruse[24] bestätigt diesen Dokumenten eine „ungeheure Wirkung“ bei den Gelehrten, die sich mit der Erforschung des hellenistischen Judentums beschäftigen. Basis der Untersuchung sind 20 aus Mumienkartonage gewonnene Texte, die heute in den Papyrussammlungen von Heidelberg, Köln, München und Wien aufbewahrt werden.[25] Sie betreffen den Rechtsprechungsalltag des Politeuma, dessen Leitung ein Archontenkollegium mit einem Politarch als Vorsitzenden innehatte. Das Kollegium war sowohl für die Gaumetropole als auch für die Siedlungen im Gau zuständig.[26] Die Papyri des Politeuma von Herakleopolis bestätigen somit auch die Existenz des Politarchenamtes, das in der Grabinschrift des Abramos aus Leontopolis erwähnt wird.[27]

    Nach den Entdeckungen in der ägyptischen Chora stellt sich auch für die Metropole Alexandria heute kaum noch die Frage, ob es dort ein jüdisches Politeuma gab. Weitgehende Übereinstimmung herrscht darüber, dass die jüdische Bevölkerung weder in ptolemäischer noch in römischer Zeit das alexandrinische Bürgerrecht besaß.[28][29] "Die Jüdische Gemeinde war genau genommen eine Stadt, eine Politeia, in der Stadt mit praktisch den gleichen Kompetenzen wie die der Alexandriner."[30] Auch diesbezüglich hatte erst ein Papyrusfund Klärung gebracht.

    Politeumata als integrierende Organisationsform der Ptolemäer

    Die Inschriften, die ethnische Politeumata bezeugen, nennen primär die betreffende Volksgruppe, meist noch deren Siedlungsraum und eventuell noch Funktionärstitel der Körperschaft. Teilweise geben sie auch einen Hinweis auf einen möglichen militärischen Hintergrund des Politeuma. Wesentlich informativer sind demgegenüber die oben erwähnten 20 Papyri aus der juristischen Korrespondenz des jüdischen Politeuma von Herakleopolis.

    Mit der Begründung, die Juden hätten in der Zeit der Ptolemäer juristisch und sozial keinen anderen Status gehabt als die Einwanderer anderer Ethnien, stellt P. Sänger[31] die Arbeitshypothese auf, dass alle anderen ethnischen Politeumata des hierarchisch durchstrukturierten Reiches dieselben Rechte wie das jüdische Politeuma hatten. Er liefert Begründungen, warum die (nicht ethnischen) Politeumata von Sidon nicht auf die Seleukiden, sondern ebenfalls auf die Ptolemäer zurückgehen und somit „die Organisationsform politeuma eine Kreation der Ptolemäer“ ist, die möglicherweise auf das 3. Jh. v. Chr. zurückgeht. Als Grund für die Einführung der Politeumata sieht Sänger die Notwendigkeit die zahlreichen Einwanderer, primär Söldner aus dem Alexanderreich, welche sich im unterworfenen Ägypten niederlassen, in das ptolemäische Machtgefüge zu integrieren. Durch Anerkennung der rechtlichen und kultischen Eigenart einer ethnischen Minderheit und Sanktionierung der Kompetenzen ihrer leitenden Funktionäre werde diese „zu einem institutionalisierten Teil des Königreichs“. Die Mitglieder des Politeuma könnten sich in „ihrem“ Stadtviertel, besonders wenn sie dort die Mehrheit der Bevölkerung stellten, als einheimische Bürger statt als Fremde fühlen. Aus der Verbundenheit mit ihrem neuen Heimatort resultiere Leistungsbereitschaft für den Staat, von der dieser wiederum profitieren könne.

    Ein frühes Beispiel für die Wertschätzung der Juden und für erwartete Leistungen im ptolemäischen Staat nennt Flavius Josephus. Die ältesten jüdischen Diaspora-Gemeinden in Libyen gehen demzufolge auf Ptolemäus I. (305 – 285 v. Chr.) zurück. Er soll Juden aus Alexandria in Kyrene und anderen Städten Ost-Libyens angesiedelt haben, um dieses Gebiet seines Reiches besser unter Kontrolle zu haben.[32]

    Zu beachten ist, dass „Integration von Minderheiten“ in dieser geschichtlichen Epoche nicht auf der Basis unseres heutigen Verständnisses von allgemeinen Menschenrechten beruhte. Erfolgreiche Integration bedeutete die Schaffung des Gefühls einer ethnischen Minderheit, mit der privilegierten Schicht der „Hellenen“ gleichgestellt zu sein, also nicht zum gemeinen Volk der unterworfenen Ägypter zu gehören. Die Zugehörigkeit zur Klasse der neuen Herren Ägyptens spricht beispielsweise aus Papyrus 1 der Urkunden des Politeuma der Juden von Herakleopolis.[33] Hier geht es um die Klage eines Juden wegen Beleidigung durch „einen von den Hafenbewohnern“ – offensichtlich einen Nichtjuden. Das Hafengebiet gehörte in den Zuständigkeitsbereich der Archonten des Politeuma, welches möglicherweise seine Entstehung der dort gebauten Festung mit jüdischem Kommandanten und eventuell auch jüdischer Mannschaft verdankte.[34][35] Die Angehörigen des Politeuma bezeichnet der Kläger selbstbewusst als πολῖται (Bürger), eine Bezeichnung, die sonst nur die Bürger der Griechenstädte Alexandria, Naukratis und Ptolemais trugen.[36] Die anderen Bewohner sind ἀλλόφυλοι (Ausländer, von einem anderen Stamm).

    Offen ist, ob die Politeumata eventuell noch ältere orientalische Wurzeln haben. Denn bereits die Perser unterhielten in Elephantine eine Militärkolonie, die Söldner verschiedener Herkunft beherbergte. Die gefundene Korrespondenz in aramäischer Sprache bezeugt die Existenz einer jüdischen Kultusgemeinde mit eigenem Tempel und eigenen Traditionen. (Der Tempel hatte schon vor der Eroberung Ägyptens durch Kambyses II. bestanden und war von diesem nicht zerstört worden.[37])


    • Patrick Sänger: Die ptolemäische Organisationsform politeuma: Ein Herrschaftsinstrument zugunsten jüdischer und anderer hellenischer Gemeinschaften, Mohr Siebeck, Tübingen 2019, ISBN 978-3-16-156883-1.
    • T. Kruse: Das jüdische politeuma von Herakleopolis in Ägypten. Zur Methode der Integration ethnischer Gruppen in den Staat der Ptolemäer. In: V. Dementyeva, T. Schmitt (Hrsg.): Volk und Demokratie im Altertum (= Bremer Beiträge zur Altertumswissenschaft. Band 1). Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Göttingen 2010, S. 93–105.
    • J. Cowey, K. Maresch (Hrsg.): Urkunden des Politeuma der Juden von Herakleopolis (144/3–133/2 v. Chr.): Papyri aus den Sammlungen von Heidelberg, Köln, München und Wien. Westdeutscher Verlag, Wiesbaden 2001, ISBN 3-531-09948-5.
    • G. Lüderitz: What is the Politeuma? In: J. van Henten, P. van der Horst (Hrsg.): Studies in Early Jewish Epigraphy. Leiden 1994, ISBN 90-04-09916-6, S. 183–225.
    • A. Kasher: The Jews in Hellenistic and Roman Egypt. The Struggle for Equal Rights. Mohr, Tübingen 1885, ISBN 3-16-144829-4.


    Siehe auch


    1.  Karen Piepenbrink: Politische Ordnungskonzeptionen in der attischen Demokratie des vierten Jahrhunderts v. Chr.: eine vergleichende Untersuchung zum philosophischen und rhetorischen Diskurs. Steiner, Stuttgart 2001, ISBN 3-515-07848-7, S. 70.
    2.  Phil 3,20 EU, Zürcher Bibel 2007, S. 318.
    3.  Phil 3, 20, Zürcher Bibel 1977, S. 258
    4.  Gerhard Pfohl: Griechische Inschriften als Zeugnisse des privaten und öffentlichen Lebens. Heimeran, München 1965, Nr. 107.
    5.  Chios-Text aus dem TELEMACO-Projekt der Universität Bologna (Memento des Originals vom 7. Mai 2006 im Internet Archive)  Info: Der Archivlink wurde automatisch eingesetzt und noch nicht geprüft. Bitte prüfe Original- und Archivlink gemäß Anleitung und entferne dann diesen Hinweis.
    6.  Flavius Josephus, Contra Apionem, II 39.
    7.  Flavius Josephus, Antiquitates Judaicae, XII 3:1.
    8.  J. Cowey, K. Maresch (Hrsg.): Urkunden des Politeuma der Juden von Herakleopolis, Einleitung S. 6–7.
    9.  G. Lüderitz: What is the Politeuma?, S. 196–199.
    10.  G. Lüderitz: What is the Politeuma? S. 189–196.
    11.  G. Lüderitz: What is the Politeuma? S. 201–204.
    12.  M. San Nicolò, Ägyptisches Vereinswesen zur Zeit der Ptolemäer, Erster Teil: Die Vereinsarten (Münchner Beiträge zur Papyrusforschung und antiken Rechtsgeschichte, Heft 2, I. Teil) 2. Aufl., Beck, München 1972, ISBN 3-406-01702-9, S. 198
    13.  Emil Schürer: Geschichte des jüdischen Volkes im Zeitalter Jesu Christi. III, Hinrichs, Leipzig 1909, S. 82.
    14.  Emil Schürer: Geschichte des jüdischen Volkes im Zeitalter Jesu Christi. II, Hinrichs, Leipzig 1886, S. 514.
    15.  Flavius Josephus, Antiquitates Judaicae XIV, 7:2.
    16.  A. Kasher: The Jews in Hellenistic and Roman Egypt. S. 10
    17.  A. Kasher: The Jews in Hellenistic and Roman Egypt, S. 279.
    18.  Flavius Josephus, Antiquitates Judaicae, XIX 280–285.
    19.  A. Kasher: The Jews in Hellenistic and Roman Egypt, S. 281.
    20.  Corpus Papyrorum Judaicarum (CPJ), vol. III, edited by V. Tcherikover, A. Fuks und M. Stern, 1530 a.
    21.  G. Lüderitz: What is the Politeuma? S. 221.
    22.  B. Wander: Gottesfürchtige und Sympathisanten: Studien zum heidnischen Umfeld von Diasporagemeinden. Mohr Siebeck, Tübingen 1998, ISBN 3-16-146865-1, S. 25.
    23.  J. Cowey, K. Maresch (Hrsg.): Urkunden des Politeuma der Juden von Herakleopolis
    24.  T. Kruse: Das jüdische politeuma von Herakleopolis in Ägypten. S. 95.
    25.  Urkunden des Politeuma der Juden von Herakleopolis.
    26.  T. Kruse: Das jüdische politeuma von Herakleopolis in Ägypten. S. 98.
    27.  Walter Ameling: Die jüdische Gemeinde von Leontopolis nach den Inschriften. In: M. Karrer, W. Kraus, unter Mitarbeit von M. Meiser (Hrsg.): Die Septuaginta - Texte, Kontexte, Lebenswelten. Internationale Fachtagung veranstaltet von Septuaginta Deutsch (LXX.D), Wuppertal 20.–23. Juli 2006. Mohr Siebeck, Tübingen 2008, ISBN 978-3-16-149317-1, S. 117–133, besonders S. 128.
    28.  A. Kasher: The Jews in Hellenistic and Roman Egypt. S. 262.
    29.  J. Cowey, K. Maresch (Hrsg.): Urkunden des Politeuma der Juden von Herakleopolis. Einleitung S. 8–9.
    30.  H. Bell: Jews and Christians in Egypt. Oxford University Press, London 1924, S. 10–16.
    31.  P. Sänger, Das politeuma in der hellenistischen Staatenwelt: Eine Organisationsform zur Integration von Minderheiten, Kapitel 3. Neue Perspektiven
    32.  Flavius Josephus: Contra Apionem. II 44, (griechisch und englisch, PACE) (Seite nicht mehr abrufbar, Suche in Webarchiven Info: Der Link wurde automatisch als defekt markiert. Bitte prüfe den Link gemäß Anleitung und entferne dann diesen Hinweis.
    33.  J. Cowey, K. Maresch (Hrsg.): Urkunden des Politeuma der Juden von Herakleopolis, S. 35
    34.  T. Kruse: Das jüdische politeuma von Herakleopolis in Ägypten. S. 99–101.
    35.  T. Kruse, Die Festung Herakleopolis und der Zwist im Ptolemäerreich, in: A. Jördens, J. F. Quack (Hrsg.), Ägypten zwischen innerem Zwist und äußerem Druck. Die Zeit Ptolemaios’ VI. bis VIII. Internationales Symposium Heidelberg 16.-19.9.2007 (Philippika. Marburger altertumskundliche Abhandlungen, Bd. 45), Harrasowitz, Wiesbaden 2011, S. 255–267.
    36.  J. Cowey, K. Maresch (Hrsg.): Urkunden des Politeuma der Juden von Herakleopolis, Einleitung S. 22
    37.  A. Joisten-Pruschke, Das religiöse Leben der Juden von Elephantine in der Achämenidenzeit (Göttinger Orientforschungen, Reihe: Iranica), Harrassowitz, Wiesbaden 2008, ISBN 978-3-447-05706-6, S. 68.





    het paspoort zelfst.naamw.Uitspraak:   [ˈpɑsport] Verbuigingen:   paspoort|en (meerv.) door de overheid afgegeven document met je foto, je naam en geboortedatum als bewijs van je staatsburgerschap 



    • Bewijs 2) Bewijs van identiteit 3) Bewijs van nationaliteit 4) Bewijs van staatsburgerschap 5) Bewijs van te mogen passeren 6) Door de overheid uitgegeven document 7) Grenscontrole 8) Grensdocument 9) Herkenningsbewijs 10) Identiteitsbewijs 11) Legitimatiebewijs 12) Nationaliteitsbewijs 13) Officieel document 14) Officieel geschrift 15) Officiee...


    1) Bewijs 2) Bewijs van identiteit 3) Bewijs van nationaliteit 4) Bewijs van staatsburgerschap 5) Bewijs van te mogen passeren 6) Door de overheid uitgegeven document 7) Grenscontrole 8) Grensdocument 9) Herkenningsbewijs 10) Identiteitsbewijs 11) Legitimatiebewijs 12) Nationaliteitsbewijs 13) Officieel document 14) Officieel geschrift 15) Officiee...




    capitis deminutio minima (PERSOON)


    Ben is “son of”

    Bath is “daughter of”



    Main articles: Jewish surname and Hebraization of surnames

    Jews have historically used Hebrew patronymic names. In the Jewish patronymic system the first name is followed by either ben- or bat- ("son of" and "daughter of", respectively), and then the father's name. (Bar-, "son of" in Aramaic, is also seen). Permanent family surnames exist today but only gained popularity among Sephardic Jews in Iberia as early as the 10th or 11th century and did not spread widely to the Ashkenazic Jews of Germany or Eastern Europe until the late 18th and mid 19th century, where the adoption of German surnames was imposed in exchange for Jewish emancipation.

    Although Ashkenazi Jews now use European or modern-Hebrew surnames for everyday life, the Hebrew patronymic form is still used in Jewish religious and cultural life, and is common in Israel. It is used in synagogue and in documents in Jewish law such as the ketubah (marriage contract). Many Sephardic Jews used the Arabic ibn instead of bat or ben when it was the norm. The Spanish family Ibn Ezra is one example.

    Many immigrants to modern Israel change their names to Hebrew names, to erase remnants of Diaspora life still surviving in family names from other languages. This is especially common among Ashkenazic Jews, because most of their European names do not go back far in history; surnames were imposed by the German and Austro-Hungarian Empires in the 18th century (explaining why many Ashkenazi Jews have German or European-sounding names). The newly-assumed Hebrew names were sometimes based on phonetic similarity with their former (European) surname: Golda Meyersohn became Golda Meir.

    A popular form to create a new family names is the false patronymic, using the prefix "ben" or "bar" followed by words who are not the name of a parent. Examples include patriotic themes, such as ben Ami ("son of my people"), or ben Artzi ("son of my country"), and terms related to the Israeli landscape, such as bar Ilan ("son of the trees", also similar phonetically to the bearer's original family name Berlin). Another famous person who used a false patronymic is the first Israeli Prime Minister, David Ben-Gurion. His former family name was Grün, and he adopted the name "Ben-Gurion" ("son of Gurion"), not "Ben-Avigdor" (his father's name). Gurion was a Jewish leader in the period of the First Jewish–Roman War.




    Isaiah 44:

    1 Yet now hear, O Jacob my servant; and Israel, whom I have chosen:

    2 Thus saith the LORD that made thee, and formed thee from the womb, which will help thee; Fear not, O Jacob, my servant; and thou, Jesurun, whom I have chosen.

    3 For I will pour water upon him that is thirsty, and floods upon the dry ground: I will pour my spirit upon thy seed, and my blessing upon thine offspring:

    4 And they shall spring up as among the grass, as willows by the water courses.

    5 One shall say, I am YHWH (the LORD'S); and another shall call himself by the name of Jacob; and another shall subscribe with his hand unto the LORD, and surname himself by the name of Israel.

    6 Thus saith YHWH (the LORD) the King of Israel, and his redeemer the LORD of hosts; I am the first, and I am the last; and beside me there is no God.

    7 And who, as I, shall call, and shall declare it, and set it in order for me, since I appointed the ancient people? and the things that are coming, and shall come, let them shew unto them.

    8 Fear ye not, neither be afraid: have not I told thee from that time, and have declared it? ye are even my witnesses. Is there a God beside me? yea, there is no God; I know not any.



    Job 32:

    21 Let me not, I pray you, accept any man's person, neither let me give flattering titles unto man.

    22 For I know not to give flattering titles; in so doing my maker would soon take me away.

    (21 Laat mij niet, iemands persoon aannemen, en laat mij geen vleiende titels geven aan de mens.)


    Exodus 17:

    1 And all the congregation of the children of Israel journeyed from the wilderness of Sin, after their journeys, according to the commandment of YHWH (the LORD), and pitched in Rephidim: and there was no water for the people to drink.


    Haggai 2:

    6 For thus saith the LORD of hosts; Yet once, it is a little while, and I will shake the heavens, and the earth, and the sea, and the dry land;


    Revelation 12:

    12 Therefore rejoice, ye heavens, and ye that dwell in them. Woe to the inhabiters of the earth and of the sea! for the devil is come down unto you, having great wrath, because he knoweth that he hath but a short time.


    Deuteronomy 17:

    6 At the mouth of two witnesses, or three witnesses, shall he that is worthy of death be put to death; but at the mouth of one witness he shall not be put to death.


    Deuteronomy 19:

    15 One witness shall not rise up against a man for any iniquity, or for any sin, in any sin that he sinneth: at the mouth of two witnesses, or at the mouth of three witnesses, shall the matter be established.


    Matthew 18:

    16 But if he will not hear thee, then take with thee one or two more, that in the mouth of two or three witnesses every word may be established.


    2Corinthians 13:

    1 This is the third time I am coming to you. In the mouth of two or three witnesses shall every word be established.


    1Timothy 5:

    19 Against an elder receive not an accusation, but before two or three witnesses.


    Hebrews 10:

    28 He that despised Moses' law died without mercy under two or three witnesses


    Joshua 8:


    33 All the people, rulers, leaders, and judges were standing on either side of the ark, in front of the Levitical priests who carried the ark of the covenant of (YHWH) the LORD. Both resident foreigners and native Israelites were there. Half the people stood in front of Mount Gerizim and the other half in front of Mount Ebal, as Moses the LORD's servant had previously instructed to them to do for the formal blessing ceremony.


    33 And all Israel, and their elders, and officers, and their judges, stood on this side the ark and on that side before the priests the Levites, which bare the ark of the covenant of (YHWH) the LORD, as well the stranger, as he that was born among them; half of them over against mount Gerizim, and half of them over against mount Ebal; as Moses the servant of the LORD had commanded before, that they should bless the people of Israel.

    34 And afterward he read all the words of the law, the blessings and cursings, according to all that is written in the book of the law.
    35 There was not a word of all that Moses commanded, which Joshua read not before all the congregation of Israel, with the women, and the little ones, and the strangers that were conversant among them.


    Ezra 7: (KJV)

    23 Whatsoever is commanded by the God of heaven, let it be diligently done for the house of the God of heaven: for why should there be wrath against the realm of the king and his sons?

    24 Also we certify you, that touching any of the priests and Levites, singers, porters, Nethinims, or ministers of this house of God, it shall not be lawful to impose toll, tribute, or custom, upon them.

    25 And thou, Ezra, after the wisdom of thy God, that is in thine hand, set magistrates and judges, which may judge all the people that are beyond the river, all such as know the laws of thy God; and teach ye them that know them not.

    26 And whosoever will not do the law of thy God (YHWH), and the law of the king (YAHUSHUA) (? zie hieronder voor de vertaling), let judgment be executed speedily upon him, whether it be unto death, or to banishment, or to confiscation of goods, or to imprisonment.


    (Ezra 7:26 (WLC/Hebreeuws)

    וְכָל־דִּי־לָא לֶהֱוֵא עָבֵד דָּתָא דִֽי־אֱלָהָךְ וְדָתָא דִּי מַלְכָּא אָסְפַּרְנָא דִּינָה לֶהֱוֵא מִתְעֲבֵד מִנֵּהּ הֵן לְמֹות הֵן לשֶׂרשֶׂו הֵן־לַעֲנָשׁ נִכְסִין וְלֶאֱסוּרִֽין׃ פ


    Ezra 7: (google translate)

    26 And all that is not to be worshiped by the Lord, the Lord is your God, and the judge is the one who is going to be a slave to us, so that he may become a servant from us, and they will die for his inheritance, for they will be punished, and they will be imprisoned.


    Ezra 7: (google vertalen)

    26 En alles wat niet door de Heer dient te aanbidden, de Heer is uw God, en de rechter is degene die ons een slaaf zal zijn, zodat hij een dienstknecht van ons kan worden, en zij zullen voor zijn erfdeel sterven, want zij zullen gestraft worden en zij zullen gevangen worden.)


    Ezekiel 38:

    20 So that the fishes of the sea, and the fowls of the heaven, and the beasts of the field, and all creeping things that creep upon the earth, and all the men that are upon the face of the earth, shall shake at my presence, and the mountains shall be thrown down, and the steep places shall fall, and every wall shall fall to the ground.


    Exodus 19:

    5 Now therefore, if ye will obey my voice indeed, and keep my covenant, then ye shall be a peculiar treasure unto me above all people: for all the earth is mine:


    Deuteronomy 14:

    2 For thou art an holy people unto the LORD thy God, and the LORD hath chosen thee to be a peculiar people unto himself, above all the nations that are upon the earth.


    Deuteronomy 26:

    18 And the LORD hath avouched thee this day to be his peculiar people, as he hath promised thee, and that thou shouldest keep all his commandments;


    Psalm 135:

    4 For the LORD hath chosen Jacob unto himself, and Israel for his peculiar treasure.


    Ecclesiastes 2:

    8 I gathered me also silver and gold, and the peculiar treasure of kings and of the provinces: I gat me men singers and women singers, and the delights of the sons of men, as musical instruments, and that of all sorts.


    Titus 2:

    14 Who gave himself for us, that he might redeem us from all iniquity, and purify unto himself a peculiar people, zealous of good works.


    1Peter 2:

    9 But ye are a chosen generation, a royal priesthood, an holy nation, a peculiar people; that ye should shew forth the praises of him who hath called you out of darkness into his marvellous light:


    1Peter 3:

    22 Who is gone into heaven, and is on the right hand of God; angels and authorities and powers being made subject unto him.


    Job 1:

    4 His sons used to go and hold a feast in the house of each one on his day, and they would send and invite their three sisters to eat and drink with them.

    5 And when the days of the feast had run their course, Job would send and consecrate them, and he would rise early in the morning and offer burnt offerings according to the number of them all. For Job said, “It may be that my children have sinned, and cursed[fn] God in their hearts.” Thus Job did continually.


    respect persons

    Deuteronomy 1:
    17 Ye shall not respect persons in judgment; but ye shall hear the small as well as the great; ye shall not be afraid of the face of man; for the judgment is God's: and the cause that is too hard for you, bring it unto me, and I will hear it.


    Proverbs 24:
    23 These things also belong to the wise. It is not good to have respect of persons in judgment.


    Proverbs 28:
    21 To have respect of persons is not good: for for a piece of bread that man will transgress.


    James 2:
    9 But if ye have respect to persons, ye commit sin, and are convinced of the law as transgressors.


    1 Peter 1:
    17 And if ye call on the Father, who without respect of persons judgeth according to every man's work, pass the time of your sojourning here in fear:



    Isaiah 56:

    1 Thus saith the Lord, Keep ye judgment, and do justice: for my salvation is near to come, and my righteousness to be revealed.

    Blessed is the man that doeth this, and the son of man that layeth hold on it; that keepeth the sabbath from polluting it, and keepeth his hand from doing any evil.

    Neither let the son of the stranger, that hath joined himself to the Lord, speak, saying, The Lord hath utterly separated me from his people: neither let the eunuch say, Behold, I am a dry tree.

    For thus saith the Lord unto the eunuchs that keep my sabbaths, and choose the things that please me, and take hold of my covenant;

    Even unto them will I give in mine house and within my walls a place and a name better than of sons and of daughters: I will give them an everlasting name, that shall not be cut off.

    Also the sons of the stranger, that join themselves to the Lord, to serve him, and to love the name of YeHoVaH, to be his servants, every one that keepeth the sabbath from polluting it, and taketh hold of my covenant;

    Even them will I bring to my holy mountain, and make them joyful in my house of prayer: their burnt offerings and their sacrifices shall be accepted upon mine altar; for mine house shall be called an house of prayer for all people.





    What is ORIGINAL?

    Primitive; first in order; bearing its own authority, and not deriving authority from an outside source; as original jurisdiction, original writ, etc. As applied to documents, the original is the first copy or archetype; that from which another in- strument is transcribed, copied, or imitated.



    The power and authority constitutionally conferred upon (or constitutionally recognized as existing in) a court or judge to pronounce the sentence of the law, or to award the remedies provided by law, upon a state of facts, proved or ad- mitted, referred to the tribunal for decision, and authorized by law to be the subject of investigation or action by that tribunal, and in favor of or against persons (or a res) who present themselves, or who are brought, before the court in some manner sanctioned by law as proper and sufficient. 1 Black, Judgm.


    What is AUTHORITY?

    In contracts. The lawful delegation of power by one person to another. In the English law relating to public administration, an authority is a body having jurisdiction in certain matters of a public nature. In governmental law. Legal power; a right to command or to act; the right and power of public officers to require obedience to their orders lawfully issued in the scope of their public duties. Authority to execute a deed must be given by deed. Com. Dig. “Attorney,” C, 5; 4 Term, 313; 7 Term, 207; 1 Holt, 141; Blood v. Goodrich, 9 Wend. (N. Y.) 68, 75, 24 Am. Dec. 121; Banorgee v. Hovey, 5 Mass. 11, 4 Am. Dec. 17; Cooper v. Rankin, 5 Bin. (Pa.) 613.


    The law of LAND and the law of WATER.

    Word Magic


    Right: Some birth and marriage certificates are now "warehouse receipts," printed on banknote paper, which may mark you and yours as 'chattel' property of the banks that our government borrows from every day. A certificate is a "paper establishing an ownership claim." - Barron's Dictionary of Banking Terms.



    mens rea = Nederlands: vrijwillige geest
    Uitleg: Een voorwaarde om een strafbaar feit te plegen is een vrije wil om te handelen.


    actus non facit reum nisi mens sit rea = Nederlands: de daad is niet strafbaar als de geest niet schuldig is
    Uitleg: Voor schuld moet niet alleen de daad strafbaar zijn, ook de mens moet een schuldige geest hebben. Bij een geestesziekte, is geen schuldige geest.
    Engels: the act is not culpable unless the mind is guilty


    Latijn                                                           Nederlands
    mens {zn.}                                                   geest [m]
    Mens et manus
                                                                         Verstand en hand
    Mens agitat molem
                                                                         De geest beweegt de massa


    Latijn                                                           Nederlands
    homo {zn.}                                                  mens [m]
                                                                         menselijk wezen



    corporation is an organization, usually a group of people or a company, authorized to act as a single entity (legally a person) and recognized as such in law. ... Corporations can be divided by the number of owners: corporation aggregate or corporation sole.

    artificial person

    Entity (such as a firm) other than a natural person (human being) created by law and recognized as a legal entity having distinct identity, legal personality, and duties and rights. Also called juristic person or legal person. See also body corporate.


    A nonhuman entity that is created by law and is legally different owning its own rights and duties. AKA jusistic person and legal person. Refer to body corporate.

    Read more:


    Artificial Person Law and Legal Definition

    Artificial person is an entity created by law and given certain legal rights and duties of a human being. It can be real or imaginary and for the purpose of legal reasoning is treated more or less as a human being. For example, corporation, company etc. An artificial person is also referred to as a fictitious person, juristic person, juridical person, legal person or moral person.


    Person Law and Legal Definition

    A person, for legal purposes, is generally more broadly defined to refer other than just a natural person. A person may also include a corporation, company, partnership, firm, association or society. For example, when a company incorporates, it has standing as a legal person to sue and be sued in courts of law. The precise definition of a person may vary by state and applicable laws.

    The following is an example of one state's statute governing the definition of a person:

    "When the word "person" is used to designate the party whose property may be the subject of a criminal or public offense, the term includes the United States, this state, or any territory, state or country, or any political subdivision of this state that may lawfully own any property, or a public or private corporation, or partnership or association. When the word "person" is used to designate the violator or offender of any law, it includes corporation, partnership or any association of persons."


    certificate is a "paper establishing an ownership claim

    The process of establishing proof of ownership involves a series of steps. It also depends largely on the type of property and your relationship to the person claiming it. If you are the original owner and have been reported as the property owner, there are certain documents you must provide to prove it.


    Structure Of The Birth Certificate

    Did the State Pledge Your Body to a Bank?
    Right: Some birth and marriage certificates are now "warehouse receipts," printed on banknote paper, which may mark
    you and yours as 'chattel' property of the banks that our government borrows from every day.

    By: David Deschesne
    Editor, Fort Fairfield Journal
    Fort Fairfield Journal, May 11, 2005

    A certificate is a "paper establishing an ownership claim." - Barron's Dictionary of
    Banking Terms. Registration of births began in 1915, by the Bureau of Census, with all
    states adopting the practice by 1933.

    Birth and marriage certificates are a form of securities called "warehouse receipts." The
    items included on a warehouse receipt, as descried at §7-202 of the Uniform Commercial
    Code, the law which governs commercial paper and transactions, which parallel a birth or
    marriage certificate are:
    -the location of the warehouse where the goods are stored...(residence)
    -the date of issue of the receipt.....("Date issued")
    -the consecutive number of the receipt...(found on back or front of the certificate, usually in red numbers)
    -a description of the goods or of the packages containing them...(name, sex, date of birth, etc.)
    -the signature of the warehouseman, which may be made by his authorized agent...(municipal clerk or state
    registrar's signature)

    Birth/marriage certificates now appear to at least qualify as "warehouse receipts" under
    the Uniform Commercial Code. Black's Law Dictionary, Seventh Edition, defines:
    warehouse receipt. "...A warehouse receipt, which is considered a document of
    title, may be a negotiable instrument and is often used for financing with
    inventory as security."

    Since the U.S. went bankrupt in 1933, all new money has to be borrowed into existence.
    All states started issuing serial-numbered, certificated "warehouse receipts" for births and
    marriages in order to pledge us as collateral against those loans and municipal bonds
    taken out with the Federal Reserve's banks. The "Full faith and Credit" of the American
    people is said to be that which back the nation's debt. That simply means the American
    people's ability to labor and pay back that debt. In order to catalog its laborers, the

    government needed an efficient, methodical system of tracking its property to that end.
    Humans today are looked upon merely as resources - "human resources" that is.
    Governmental assignment of a dollar value to the heads of citizens began on July 14,
    1862 when President Lincoln offered 6 percent interest bearing-bonds to states who freed
    their slaves on a "per head" basis. This practice of valuating humans (cattle?) continues
    today with our current system of debt-based currency reliant upon a steady stream of
    fresh new chattels to back it.

    Additional Birth Certificate Research
    Federal Children
    by Joyce Rosenwald

    In 1921, the federal Sheppard-Towner Maternity Act created the birth "registration" or
    what we now know as the "birth certificate." It was known as the "Maternity Act" and
    was sold to the American people as a law that would reduce maternal and infant
    mortality, protect the health of mothers and infants, and for "other purposes." One of
    those other purposes provided for the establishment of a federal bureau designed to
    cooperate with state agencies in the overseeing of its operations and expenditures. What it
    really did was create a federal birth registry which exists today, creating "federal
    children." This government, under the doctrine of "Parens Patriae" now legislates for
    American children as if they are owned by the federal government. Through the public
    school enrollment process and continuing license requirements for most aspects of daily
    life, these children grow up to be adults indoctrinated into the process of asking for
    "permission" from ‘big Daddy’ government to do all those things necessary to carry out
    daily activities that exist in what is called a "free country."
    Before 1921 the records of births and names of children were entered into family bibles,
    as were the records of marriages and deaths. These records were readily accepted by both
    the family and the law as "official" records. Si
    The state claims an interest in every child within its jurisdiction. The state (via CPS) will,
    if it deems it necessary, nullify your parental rights and appoint a guardian (trustee) over
    your children. The subject of every birth certificate is a child. The child is a valuable
    asset, which if properly trained, can contribute valuable assets provided by its labor for
    many years. It is presumed by those who have researched this issue, that the child itself is
    the asset of the trust established by the birth certificate, and the social security number is
    the numbering or registration of the trust, allowing for the assets of the trust to be tracked.
    If this information is true, your child is now owned by the state. Each one of us, including
    our children, are considered assets of the bankrupt UNITED STATES. We are now
    designated by this government as "HUMAN RESOURCES" with a new crop born every
    In 1923, a suit was brought against federal officials charged with the administration of
    the maternity act, who were citizens of another state, to enjoin them from enforcing it,
    wherein the plaintiff averred that the act was unconstitutional, and that it's purpose was to
    induce the States to yield sovereign rights reserved by them through the federal
    Constitution's 10th amendment and not granted to the federal government, and that the
    burden of the appropriations falls unequally upon the several States, held, that, as the
    statute does not require the plaintiff to do or yield anything, and as no burden is imposed
    by it other than that of taxation, which falls, not on the State but on her inhabitants, who
    are within the federal as well as the state taxing power, the complaint resolves down to
    the naked contention that Congress has usurped reserved powers of the States by the mere
    enactment of the statute, though nothing has been, or is to be, done under it without their
    consent (Commonwealth of Massachusetts vs. Mellon, Secretary of the Treasury, et al.;
    Frothingham v. Mellon, Secretary of the Treasury et. al..) Mr. Alexander Lincoln,
    Assistant Attorney General, argued for the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. To wit:
    I. The act is unconstitutional. It purports to vest in agencies of the Federal Government
    powers which are almost wholly undefined, in matters relating to maternity and infancy,
    and to authorize appropriations of federal funds for the purposes of the act.
    Many examples may be given and were stated in the debates on the bill in Congress of
    regulations which may be imposed under the act. THE FORCED REGISTRATION OF
    measures to which the people of those States which accept its provisions may be
    subjected. There is nothing which prohibits the payment of subsidies out of federal
    By section 4 of the act, the Children's Bureau is given all necessary powers to cooperate
    with the state agencies in the administration of the act. Hence it is given the power to
    assist in the enforcement of the plans submitted to it, and for that purpose by its agents to
    go into the several States and to do those acts for which the plans submitted may provide.
    As to what those plans shall provide, the final arbiters are the Bureau and the Board. THE


    (1) The act is invalid because it assumes powers not granted to Congress and usurps the
    local police power. McCulloch v. Maryland, 4 Wheat. 316, 405; United States v.
    Cruikshank, 92 U.S. 542, 549-551.
    In more recent cases, however, the Court has shown that there are limits to the power of
    Congress to pass legislation purporting to be based on one of the powers expressly
    granted to Congress which in fact usurps the reserved powers of the States, and that laws
    showing on their face detailed regulation of a matter wholly within the police power of
    the States will be held to be unconstitutional although they purport to be passed in the
    exercise of some constitutional power. Hammer v. Dagenhart, 247 U.S. 251; Child Labor
    Tax Case, 259 U.S. 20; Hill v. Wallace, 259 U.S. 44.
    The act is not made valid by the circumstance that federal powers are to be exercised only
    with respect to those States which accept the act, for Congress cannot assume, and state
    legislatures cannot yield, the powers reserved to the States by the Constitution. Message
    of President Monroe, May 4, 1822; 4 Elliot's Debates, p. 525; Pollard's Lessee v. Hagan,
    3 How. 212; Escanaba Co. v. Chicago, 107 U.S. 678; Coyle v. Oklahoma, 221 U.S. 559;
    Cincinnati v. Louisville & Nashville R.R. Co., 223 U.S. 390.
    (2) The act is invalid because it imposes on each State an illegal option either to yield a
    part of its powers reserved by the Tenth Amendment or to give up its share of
    appropriations under the act. A statute attempting, by imposing conditions upon a general
    privilege, to exact a waiver of a constitutional right, is null and void. Harrison v. St.
    Louis & San Francisco R.R. Co., 232 U.S. 318; Terral v. Burke Construction Co., 257
    U.S. 529.
    (3) The act is invalid because it sets up a system of government by cooperation between
    the Federal Government and certain of the States, not provided by the Constitution.
    Congress cannot make laws for the States, and it cannot delegate to the States the power
    to make laws for the United States . In re Rahrer, 140 U.S. 545; Knickerbocker Ice Co. v.
    Stewart, 253 U.S. 149; Opinion of the Justices, 239 Mass. 606.
    The Maternity Act was eventually repealed, but parts of it have been found in other
    legislative acts. What this act attempted to do was set up government by appointment, run
    by bureaucrats with re-delegated authority to tax, which is in itself unconstitutional. What
    was once declared as unconstitutional by the Supreme Court of this nation in the past
    should be upheld in a court challenge today. The constitution hasn't changed. What has
    changed is the way this government views human life. Today we are defined as human
    resources, believed to be owned by government. The government now wants us, as
    individuals, to be tagged and tracked. Government mandated or legislated National I.D. is
    unconstitutional anyway you look at it. Federal jurisdiction to legislate for the several
    states does not exist and could never survive a court challenge as shown above. Writing
    letters to elected public servants won't save us when we all know their agenda does not
    include serving those who placed them in power. Perhaps the 10th amendment of the
    federal constitution guaranteeing states rights will, if challenged, when making it known
    that we as individuals of the several states will not be treated as chattel of the U.S.


    government. If the federal government believes they own us, and as such have the right to
    demand national I.D. cards, and health I.D. cards, which will in truth tag us as we tag our
    animals, then let them bring forth the documents to prove their authority to legislate for
    it. If our GOD given unalienable rights to life, liberty and freedom, which were the
    foundation upon which this nation was created do not exist and liberty and freedom is
    only an illusion under which the American people suffer, then let the governments of this
    nation come forward and tell the people. But...if we are indeed free, then we should not
    have to plead or beg before our elected public servants to be treated as such. If, in truth
    we are not free, then perhaps it's time to let the final chapter of the Great American
    Revolution be written.

    NOTICE: Information served herein is for educational
    purposes only, no liability assumed for use. The
    information you obtain in this presentation is not, nor is it
    intended to be, legal advice. Author does not consent to
    unlawful action. Author advocates and encourages one
    and all to adhere to, support and defend all law which is
    particularly applicable. If anything in this presentation is
    found to be in error a good faith effort will be made to
    correct it in timely fashion upon notification.
    VOID where prohibited by law.






    The people who live on Land.

    The law of the land is the law of the culture that lives on the land.


    The law of the water or High seas is the law of Money. (Mammon)

    Banking or money / Maritime admiralty

    The land of Canaan = merchant banker = subdues

    Fenicië / Phoenicia


    The word mere is recorded in Old English as mere ″sea, lake″, (Dutch) meer 



    1. 1.
      a person or company involved in wholesale trade, especially one dealing with foreign countries or supplying goods to a particular trade.
      "a builders' merchant"
    1. 1.
      (in historical contexts) relating to merchants or commerce.
      "the growth of the merchant classes"


    What is BANK?

    1. A bench or seat; the bench or tribunal occupied by the judges; the seat of judgment; a court. The full bench, or full court; the assembly of all the judges of a court A “sitting in bank” is a meeting of all the judges of a court usually for the purpose of hearing arguments on demurrers, points reserved, motions for new trial, etc., as distingished from the sitting of a single judge at the assises or at nisi prius and from trials at bar. But, in this sense, banc is the more usual form of the word.

    2. An institution, of great value in the commercial world, empowered to receive deposits of money, to make loans, aud to issue its promissory notes, (designed to circulate as money, and commonly called “bank-notes” or “bank-bills,”) or to perform any one or more of these functions. The term “bank” is usually restricted in its application to an incorporated body ; while a private individual making it his business to conduct banking operations is denominated a “banker.” Hobbs v. Bank, 101 Fed. 75, 41 C. C. A. 205; Kiggins v. Munday, 19 Wash. 233, 52 Pac. 85G; Rominger v. Keyes, 73 Ind. 377; Oulton v. Loan Soc., 17 Wall. 117, 21 L. Ed. 018; Hamilton Nat. Bank v. American L. & T. Co.. 00 Neb. 67, 92 N. W. 190; Wells, Fargo & Co. v. Northern Pac. R- Co. (C. C.) 23 Fed. 469. Also the house or place where such business is carried on.

    Banks in the commercial sense are of three kinds, to-wit: (1) Of deposit; (2) of discount ; (3) of circulation. Strictly speaking, the term “bank” implies a place for the de- (K)sit of money, as that is the most obvious purpose of such an institution. Originally the business of banking consisted only in receiving deposits, such as bullion, plate, and the like, for safe-keeping until the depositor should see fit to draw it out for use, but the business, in the progress of events, was extended, and bankers assumed to discount bills and notes, and to loan money upon mortgage, pawn, or other security, and, at a still later period, to issue notes of their own, Intended as a circulating currency and a medium of exchange, instead of gold and silver. Modern bankers frequently exercise any two or even all three of those functions, but it is still true that an institution prohibited from exercising any more than one of those functions is a bank, in the strictest commercial sense. Oulton v. German Sav. & L. Soc., 17 Wall. 118, 21 L. Ed. 618; Rev. St U. S.


    Statute of Liberty cannot be put on land but in the harbour.

    It is not the statute of freedom

    Liberty = shore leave

    is what a sailor gets when puls in a port on a ship he is not free

    For sailors and naval officers, liberty means shore leavea brief vacation on land between voyages. We also use this noun to describe the act of getting a little too familiar or personal with someone, or doing something before we have their approval or permission.


    Court = basket ball, tennis

    Court = a game a ball trowing in the court

    team of lawyers

    judge is a referee who gets paid anyway.

    Black rope

    The Judge is a referee between 2 teams and that is why he wears a black rope

    The judge rules from the bench in latin is bank

    The judge rules for the bank

    banks on both sides of a river river banks

    A riverbank directs the flow of the currency (money). Cash flow.


    All ships are referred as female why?

    Maritime admiralty law (all ships are female because they are carrying items for money). 

    Admiral of the naivy.

    When a ships pulls into harbor it parks at the dock

    the captain has to provide for the port authority's a certificate of manifest

    Items have come of water

    captain = capital = money

    The ship is sitting in it's birth, she sits her birth, birthing a ship

    all the items, it represents money, they came in on water

    they are a maritime admiralty product


    when you were born your mothers water broke

    and when your mothers broke you came out

    and this is why you have to have a birth certificate

    because you are a maritime admiralty product under international law

    your mother delivered you (a product) ( delivery room) shipped

    you came down out of your mothers birth canal

    stew born, lost money, death certificate, and it is always signed by the dock

    The dock has to sign your birth and death certificate. 


    All of these words and terms are maritime admiralty banking words

    Lawyers and judges and courts and governments are all under international maritime admiralty law


    all churches operate under maritime admiralty law

    this is why all churches are divided into denominations 20, 50,100

    they are a product of maritime admiralty banking

    1868 privately owned company out of England called United States Corporation as a citizen

    employee of a foreign corporation

    president is always a word used in corporate law



    Capitis deminutioBETEKENIS & DEFINITIE

    Capitis deminutio is in het Romeinsche regt eene verandering en wel eene vermindering van den burgerlijken staat.

    Een caput, een status hebben beteekent in het Romeinsche regt ten volle burger zijn: in het volle genot zijn van de vrijheid, de burgerlijke en burgerschapsregten en van de familieregten. De verandering van staat is drieledig, al naarmate men één of meer soorten dezer regten verliest.

    De capitis deminutio maxima berooft iemand van de vrijheid en derhalve ook van de burgerlijke-, burgerschaps- en familieregten: zij staat gelijk met den „burgerlijken dood,” (zie aldaar); welk lot zij ondergaan, die op eenigerlei wijze van vrij man tot slaaf vernederd worden.

    Door de capitis deminutio media worden de burgerlijke-, burgerschaps- en familieregten verloren, doch de vrijheid blijft men behouden; zij is het gevolg van de straf van deportatie. De capitis deminutio minima doet niet de libertas (vrijheid) en de civitas (het burgerschap) verloren gaan, maar alléén de familieregten, de status familiae, met behoud dus van staats-burgerlijke- en burgerschapsregten.

    Deze verandering van staat trof hen, die, terwijl zij sui juris, dat is, ten volle uit zich- zelve bevoegd om eigen regten te hebben en uit te oefenen, waren,

    wederom alieni juris werden, d.i. onder de magt en het gezag van anderen kwamen, bijvoorbeeld, door zich door iemand te laten arrogéren, waardoor zij wederom aan de patria potestas, de vaderlijke magt, van dezen onderworpen werden. Vergelijk Staat, Familie, Voogdij, Curatéle.


    LAATST BIJGEWERKT 02-07-2018

    Dutch government invests in human rights

    News item | 28-05-2018 | 13:47


    The Netherlands is known as a place where people can be themselves, but unfortunately, there are many countries in the world where such freedoms cannot be taken for granted. ‘Human rights are fundamental rights. They apply to everyone,’ foreign minister Stef Blok said recently. ‘This is why the government is investing an additional €36.2 million in this area over the next four years.’


    One of the themes covered in the Netherlands’ annual Human Rights Report is the situation in Syria. ‘To secure and examine evidence of the horrendous crimes being committed in Syria, we are earmarking an extra €2.5 million for the International, Impartial and Independent Mechanism (IIIM), an information database on Syria.’ The minister made this announcement today at the UN Security Council. He was there to attend a session on the importance of international law, including human rights obligations. The Netherlands was one of the initiators of the database.

    ‘But Syria isn’t the only place in the world where human rights are in jeopardy,’ the minister noted. The Netherlands is committed to greater observance of human rights, particularly for three vulnerable groups: religious minorities (including Christians), LGBTI people and journalists. The Netherlands was the co-organiser of the first regional conference on freedom of religion in Armenia in 2017. ‘We advocate freedom of religion and belief and thus a better position for Christians,’ Mr Blok said.

    In addition, embassies and the business community have joined forces in the Workplace Pride network to achieve equality in the workplace. The Netherlands will also continue to seek to form partnerships with other countries (for example through UNESCO), so that journalists can do their work without fear of intimidation, violence or even death.

    ‘The Netherlands will continue to promote respect for human rights for all, at every opportunity and in every possible way,’ Mr Blok concluded.




    Loog maken


    A 7.5 minute tutorial on how to make potassium hydroxide (KOH) lye water from wood ashes using a 5 gallon bucket, small stones, sand, and straw. It can be used in soap making.

    You will need / Je hebt nodig:

    5 gallon Bucket / emmer
    Rocks / stenen
    Sand / zand
    Hay / hooi

    hydrometer (potassium hydroxide / kaliumhydroxide)


    Loog is een basische oplossing die vaak gebruikt wordt voor reiniging, het maken van zeep en het inmaken van bepaalde voedingsmiddelen. Het wordt soms ook wel bijtende soda genoemd omdat het een pH van ongeveer 13 heeft, wat betekent dat het sterk basisch is. Loog kan in de huid, organisch weefsel, bepaalde soorten plastic en andere materialen bijten en ze verbranden.


    Je kunt je eigen kaliloog maken door houtas in regenwater te weken. Dit type loog is ideaal voor het maken van vloeibare zeep. Het is gevaarlijk om met loog te werken, en je zult verschillende voorzorgsmaatregelen moeten nemen.


    Verzamel houtas. Om kaliloog te maken heb je de witte as van verbrand hardhout nodig. Wanneer loofbomen (bomen waar hardhout van afkomstig is) groeien trekken ze kalium uit de grond. Dit kalium verbrandt niet in het vuur en bevindt zich nog steeds in de as die na het verbranden van het hout overblijft. Je kunt het kalium met behulp van water aan de as onttrekken.[1]

    • Nadat je een vuur van hardhout gemaakt hebt laat je de as enkele dagen afkoelen. Verzamel dan de witte as en stop de as in een metalen bak.
    • De beste soorten hardhout voor loogwater zijn onder andere essenhout, hickoryhout, beukenhout, suikeresdoornhout en kastanjehout.[2]
    • Om met deze methode loog te maken heb je genoeg as nodig om een houten ton bijna helemaal mee te kunnen vullen.
    • Gebruik geen as van naaldbomen, want die as bevat niet genoeg kalium.


    Verzamel regenwater. Het tweede wat je nodig hebt om vloeibare kaliloog te maken is zacht water. Regenwater is ideaal om het zacht is en in grote hoeveelheden te verkrijgen is.

    • Zet een regenton in je achtertuin of onder de dakrand van je huis om regenwater te verzamelen. Zorg ervoor dat de ton een filter heeft om bladeren en organisch materiaal uit het water te zeven.
    • Zacht water bevat kleinere hoeveelheden van andere elementen en is dus ideaal voor het maken van zeep. Met hard water maak je zeep die niet schuimt.[3]
    • Je hebt ten minste 5 liter zacht water nodig om loogwater te maken.


    Boor gaten in de houten ton. Nadat je de ton met as gevuld hebt laat je water door de as lopen om het kalium eraan te onttrekken. Het water moet ergens uit kunnen lopen, dus je zult gaten moeten maken. Met een boormachine en een klein boortje maak je ongeveer zes kleine gaten in de bodem van de ton.[4]

    • Maak de gaten bij elkaar in het midden van de ton zodat je het water in een emmer kunt laten lopen.


    Voeg een laag stenen en stro toe. Vul de ton onderin met een laag van ongeveer 3 tot 5 centimeter schone stenen en kiezels. Zorg dat de kiezels groot genoeg zijn, zodat ze niet door de gaten in de bodem vallen. Bedek de stenen met een laag van ten minste 8 centimeter gedroogd stro.[5]

    • De stenen en het stro fungeren als filter. Het loogwater loopt erdoorheen, waardoor de as en alle deeltjes erbovenop blijven liggen.

    Vul de ton met houtas. Doe de houtas die je in de metalen bakken of emmers verzameld hebt in de ton. Schep de houtas op het stro. Vul de ton tot 10 centimeter onder de rand met as.[6]


    Zet de ton op stevige blokken. Zet de ton op stevige blokken neer, zodat je bij de gaten in de bodem kunt komen. De ton moet hoog genoeg staan om er een emmer onder te kunnen zetten.[7]

    • Je kunt de ton tevens in een open houten frame zetten.
    • Zorg ervoor dat de ton stevig staat en niet om kan vallen.


    Zet de emmer neer. Onder de gaten in de ton zet je een emmer neer die tegen loog bestand is. Deze emmer vangt het loogwater op en moet dus gemaakt zijn van materiaal dat bestand is tegen loog. Geschikte materialen voor de emmer zijn onder andere:[8]

    • Glas
    • Roestvrij staal
    • Plastic met code 5
    • Dik, stevig plastic


    Giet regenwater over de as. Giet langzaam emmers regenwater in de ton. Voeg in totaal genoeg water toe om de as nat te maken, maar zorg dat de as niet kletsnat wordt. Wanneer je het wateroppervlak boven in de emmer kunt zien en de as begint te drijven voeg je geen water meer toe.[9]

    • Let goed op hoeveel emmers water je in de ton giet. Dit geeft je een idee van hoeveel emmers loogwater er uit de ton zullen stromen.
    • Je hoeft geen deksel op de ton te doen, maar zorg ervoor dat hij tegen regen beschermd is voor het geval er een storm komt.


    Trek je persoonlijke beschermingsuitrusting aan. Loog is een erg bijtend en agressief middel. Het verbrandt de huid, veroorzaakt blindheid en kan organisch weefsel en anorganische materialen beschadigen. Wanneer je met loog en loogwater werkt is het erg belangrijk om zeer voorzichtig te zijn en persoonlijke beschermingsmiddelen te gebruiken, zoals het volgende:[10]

    • Veiligheidsbril
    • Harde schoenen of laarzen
    • Plastic handschoenen die tot over de ellebogen komen


    Verzamel het water dat uit de ton loopt. Na enkele uren zal de eerste hoeveelheid loogwater uit de gaten in de bodem van de ton beginnen te druppelen. Laat de emmer onder de ton tot 10 centimeter onder de rand vollopen met loogwater. Wanneer de emmer vol is haal je hem voorzichtig onder de ton weg. Pas op dat je geen loogwater morst.

    • Zet een lege emmer onder de ton om de rest van het loogwater op te vangen.


    Test de sterkte van het loogwater. Loogwater moet een bepaalde sterkte hebben voordat je het kunt gebruiken om zeep te maken. Het loogwater zal waarschijnlijk nog niet sterk genoeg zijn nadat het een keer door de ton gestroomd is, maar je kunt het testen. Er zijn vier verschillende testen die je kunt gebruiken om de sterkte van het loogwater te testen:[11]

    • Gebruik teststrookjes voor het meten van de pH. Het loogwater moet een pH van 13 hebben.
    • Gebruik een pH-meter om te zien of de pH 13 is.
    • Leg een kleine aardappel in het loogwater. Als de aardappel zinkt is het loogwater niet sterk genoeg. Als de aardappel blijft drijven is het loogwater klaar.
    • Dompel een kippenveer in het loogwater. Als de veer niet oplost is het loogwater nog niet sterk genoeg.


    Laat het loogwater weer door de ton stromen totdat het sterk genoeg is. Meestal zul je het loogwater ten minste twee keer door de ton met as moeten laten stromen. Als het loogwater na de eerste keer niet sterk genoeg was, giet dan voorzichtig al het loogwater terug in de ton met as. Ga erg voorzichtig te werk om te voorkomen dat je water morst of ermee spettert, want je huid kan erdoor verbranden.[12]

    • Zet een nieuwe emmer onder de gaten in de ton.
    • Laat het water weer door de as lopen.
    • Het loogwater dat na de tweede keer uit de ton stroomt zal sterker zijn.
    • Wanneer je al het loogwater een tweede keer door de as hebt laten stromen test je de pH nog eens.
    • Laat het loogwater indien nodig nog een keer door de ton stromen.


    Maak vloeibare zeep. Loogwater dat je zelf thuis uit kaliumhydroxide gemaakt hebt is erg geschikt voor het maken van vloeibare zeep. Je kunt tevens je eigen castillezeep maken, waarbij erg veel vet gebruikt wordt om een hydraterende zeep te maken.

    • Kaliloog is niet geschikt voor het maken van stukken harde zeep. Om deze soort zeep te maken gebruik je natriumhydroxide, wat je op het internet en bij bouwmarkten kunt kopen.


    Maak olijven in. Er zijn verschillende voedingsmiddelen, zoals olijven en lutefisk, die traditioneel ingemaakt worden met loog. Je kunt je zelfgemaakte loogwater gebruiken om thuis olijven en andere voedingsmiddelen in te maken.


    Ontstop afvoeren. Omdat loog zo'n sterk bijtende werking heeft en door organisch materiaal als huid en haar vreet wordt het middel al heel lang als huishoudelijke reiniger en ontstoppingsmiddel gebruikt. Je kunt je loogwater gebruiken om afvoeren te ontstoppen in je washok en bijkeuken. Je kunt tevens de de afvoer van je bad ermee schoonmaken en gootsteenafvoeren ontstoppen.




    • Houtas afkomstig van verbrand hardhout
    • Metalen bak
    • Regenton
    • Houten ton
    • Boormachine
    • Stro
    • Stenen en kiezels
    • Blokken
    • Emmers die tegen loog bestand zijn
    • Lange rubberen handschoenen
    • Veiligheidsbril
    • Harde schoenen




    Alfred Adask gives a powerful message - Man or other Animals




    8 USC §1101(a)(30)
    (30) The term "passport" means any travel document issued by competent authority showing the bearer's origin, identity, and nationality if any, which is valid for the admission of the bearer into a foreign country.

    22 CFR § 41.104 Passport requirements.

    (a) Passports defined. “Passport” as defined in INA 101(a)(30) is not limited to a national passport or to a single document. A passport may consist of two or more documents which, when considered together, fulfill the requirements of a passport, provided that the documentary evidence of permission to enter a foreign country has been issued by a competent authority and clearly meets the requirements of INA 101(a)(30).

    What is PASSPORT?


    In international law. A document issued to a neutral merchant vessel, by her owu government, during the progress of a war, and to be carried on the voyage, containing a sufficient description of the vessel, master, voyage, and cargo to evidence her nationality and protect her against the cruisers of tlie belligerent powers. This paper is otherwise called a “pass,” “sea- pass,” “sea-letter,” “sea-brief.” A license or safe-conduct, issued during the progress of a war, authorizing a person to remove himself or his effects from the territory of one of the belligerent nations to another country, or to travel from country to country without arrest or detention on account of the war. In American law. A special instrument intended for the protection of American ves- sels against the Barbary powers, usually called a “Mediterranean pass.” Jac. Sea Laws, 69. In modern European law. A warrant of protection and authority to travel, granted to persons moving from place to place, by the competent officer. Brande.


    I managed to get my passport being honest and giving them the ssn that was assigned to me, but I checked no to anyone being a US citizen. Spouse, parents, none of them are fictions. Then I used the passport to do a mandatory correction of the IRS IMF to get them to address me as PRIVATE AMERICAN - NONCITIZEN NATIONAL AND LIVING MAN. That is how they address me in return correspondence now. 


    Did u notice they are address in u in a title u like but they are doin it in capitis deminutio maxima? state citizens are subject to no one but God. nonresident aliens, american nationals, u.s citizens are all found in the tax code and/or treasury decisions as somethin taxable [subject]. 


    That's why I use the World Passport which uses my given & family name.

    All nations associated w/ the UN are obligated to accept it.

    I act as expediter for the World Passport, as I wrote a disclaimer -

    due to the fraud i.e. "bearer"

    Either we control the words or the words control US.

    WIll you argue that Paul, Wandta???


    My I D Cards are also in one's proper given & family name which is accepted by the U.S. Govt. & their subdivisions!

    My I D Cards have been accepted by many cities, States, Walmart, Staples, Office Depot, Half Price Book Store, Lowes, Home Depot, Fed Ex, TSA,

    U S Custom & Border Control Agents, et al.

    I choose who I sell them to - everyone is vetted.

    THEY are NOT offered to everyone as I have a right to contract w/ whom I choose!

    Either you are the real deal or the real thing.

    Since G-d gave US freewill - you get to choose!

    What is a correct sentence structure?

    In order for a sentence to be grammatically correct, the subject and verb must both be singular or plural. In other words, the subject and verb must agree with one another in their tense. If the subject is in plural form, the verb should also be in plur al form (and vice versa).


    Writing Complete, Grammatically Correct Sentences




    a hereditary name common to all members of a family, as distinct from a forename or given name.

    A surname, family name, or last name is the portion of a personal name that indicates a person's family. Depending on the culture, all members of a family unit may have identical surnames or there may be variations based on the cultural rules. 


    Surname is defined as the family or last name.

    1. the family name, or last name, as distinguished from a given name
    2. a name or epithet added to a person's given name (Ex.: Ivan the Terrible)


    Origin of surname

    Middle English from sur- (see sur-) + name, influenced, influence by earlier surnoun from Old French surnom from sur- + nom from Classical Latin nomen, name


    transitive verb

    -·named·, -·nam·ingto give a surname to


    Only the tribe of Judah remained loyal to the house of David



    Ezekiel 28:

    25 Thus saith the Lord GOD; When I shall have gathered the house of Israel from the people among whom they are scattered, and shall be sanctified in them in the sight of the heathen, then shall they dwell in their land that I have given to my servant Jacob.



    Step 1a. Understanding Cestui Que Vie Act J.666
    Existence of Life
    Cestui Que Vie
    London 1666, during the black plague and great fires of London, Parliament
    enacted an act behind closed doors, called Cestui Que Vie Act 1.666.
    The act being debated was to subrogate the rights of men and women, meaning
    all men and women were declared dead, lost at sea/beyond the sea. (back then
    operating in Admiralty law, the law of the sea, so lost at sea).
    The state (London) took custody of everybody and their property into a trust. The
    state became the trustee/husband holding all titles to the people and property,
    until a living man comes back to reclaim those titles, he can also claim damages.
    When CAPITAL letters are used anywhere in a name this always refers to a legal
    entity/fiction, Company or Corporation no exceptions. e.g. John DOE or Doe:
    1) CEST TUI QUE TRUST: (pronounced setakay) common term in New
    Zealand and Australia
    2) STRAWMAN: common term in United States of America or Canada
    These are the legal entity/fiction created and owned by the Government whom
    created it. It is like owning a share in the Stock Market, you may own a share…
    but it is still a share of the Stock.
    Legally, we are considered to be a fiction, a concept or idea expressed as a
    name, a symbol. That legal person has no consciousness; it is a juristic person,
    ENS LEGIS, a name/word written on a piece of paper. This traces back to 1666,
    London is an IndependentCityState, just like Vatican is an IndependentCityState,
    just like WashingtonDC is an Independent City State.
    The Crown is an unincorporated association. Why unincorporated? It’s private.
    The temple bar is in London, every lawyer called to the “bar” swears allegiance to
    the temple bar. You can’t get called without swearing this allegiance.

    Our only way out is to reclaim your dead entity (strawman) that the Crown
    created, become the executor and then collapse the called Cestui Que Vie trust
    and forgive yourself of your debts and then remove yourself from the admiralty
    law that holds you in custody.
    When London burned, the subrogation of men’s and women’s rights occurred.
    The responsible act passed… CQV act 1666 meant all men and women of UK
    were declared dead and lost beyond the seas. The state took everybody and
    everybody’s property into trust. The state takes control until a living man or
    woman comes back and claims their titles by proving they are alive and claims for
    damages can be made.
    This is why you always need representation when involved in legal matters,
    because you’re dead.
    The legal fiction is a construct on paper, an estate in trust. When you get a bill or
    summons from court it is always in capital letters, similar to tomb stones in grave
    yards. Capital letters signify death. They are writing to the dead legal fiction. A
    legal fiction was created when someone informed the government that there was
    a new vessel in town, based upon your birth.
    Birth Certificates are issued to us by the Doc. just as ships are given berth
    Certificates at the Dock. It’s about commerce. We come from our mothers waters.
    Your mother has a birth canal just like a ship. The ship moves by the sea current
    just as we are able to move by the currency.
    All this information relates to how the general public are still legally tied through
    Maritime Admiralty Law. Through this ancient legal construct we can be easily
    controlled and duped. Learning about your legal fiction helps you to unlock
    yourself. Otherwise you are just an empty vessel floating on the sea of
    commerce. Parents are tricked into registering the birth of their babies.
    In about 1837 the Births, Deaths and Marriages act was formed in UK and the
    post of registrar general was established. His job was to collect all the data from
    the churches which held the records of birth.
    Regis – from Queen or Crown. All people are seen to be in custody of,” The
    Crown”. This allows people to function in commerce and to accept the benefits
    provided by state. We have to understand who we are as men and women and
    how we can relate in the system. The City of London is a centre for markets,

    where merchants work. Then there is Mercantile Law. It comes from Admiralty
    Law. Look at the symbols in your City Courts that relate to Admiralty.
    So where you have commerce and money, you also have “justice” and “injury”.
    You need to understand the bankruptcy before you can understand the judiciary.
    We have accepted the claim to accept the summons, yet ONLY the dead can be
    summoned. There is an obligation to accept any liability which has been created.
    We are operating in Admiralty. A not guilty plea, or ANY plea admits jurisdiction.
    The strawman, aka legal fiction is always guilty. Barristers and solicitors make a
    living out of creating controversy. By creating a controversy you become liable for
    the case.
    Honour and dishonour. To remain in honour you have to accept a claim and
    settle (discharge) it. Then you add conditions, ie. “I accept on proof of claim and
    proof of loss”. This gives the liability back to them. The legal fiction is always
    guilty. Only in the High Court, can the real man or woman appear. Games are
    played on courts, hence the name ‘court’. It is a game with actors (acting on
    acts). It has to be treated as a game and just business. Court room dramas are
    In the public, we are operating in bankruptcy and you receive benefits. It takes a
    lot of time, effort and study to understand and use these tools. You have to be
    prepared to go fully through the process, get the right tool out of your toolbox at
    the right time.
    People need to learn how to act as a creation of God rather than a creation of
    Evidence of Life Evidence of Person Entitled to payment Form 206
    Rights Suspension and Corruption
    Cestui Que Vie Trust
    Canon 2036 (link)
    A Cestui Que VieTrust, also known later as a “Fide Commissary Trust” and later
    again as a “Foreign Situs trust” and also known as a form of “Secret Trust”is a
    fictional concept being a Temporary Testamentary Trust, first created during the

    reign of Henry VIII of England through the Cestui Que Vie Act of 1540 and
    updated by Charles II through the Cestui Que Vie Act of 1666 wherein
    an Estate may be effected for the Benefit of one or more Persons presumed lost
    or abandoned at “sea” and therefore assumed/presumed “dead” after seven (7)
    years. Additional presumptions by which such a Trust may be formed were added
    in later statutes to include bankrupts, minors, incompetents, mortgages and
    private companies.
    Canon 2037 (link)
    The original purpose and function of a Cestui Que (Vie) Trust was to form a
    temporary Estate for the benefit of another because some
    event, state of affairs or condition prevented them from claiming their status as
    living, competent and present before a competent authority. Therefore, any
    claims, history, statutes or arguments that deviate in terms of the origin and
    function of a Cestui Que (Vie) Trust as pronounced by these canons is false and
    automatically null and void. A Cestui Que (Vie) Trust may only exist for seventy
    (70) years being the traditional accepted “life” expectancy of the estate.
    Canon 2039 (link)
    As all Cestui Que (Vie) Trusts are created on one or more presumptions based
    on its original purpose and function, such a Trust cannot be created if none of
    these presumptions can be proven to exist.
    Canon 2042 (link)
    In 1534, prior to the 1st Cestui Que Vie Act (1540), Henry VIII declared the first
    Cestui Que Vie type estate with the Act of Supremecy which created
    the Crown Estate. In 1604, seventy (70) years later, James I of England modified
    the estate as the Crown Union (Union of Crowns). By the 18th Century,
    the Crown was viewed as a company. However by the start of the 19th Century
    around 1814 onwards upon the bankruptcy of the company (1814/15) , it became
    the fully private Crown Corporation controlled by European private banker
    Canon 2043 (link)
    Since 1581, there has been a second series of Cestui Que Vie Estates
    concerning the property of “persons” and rights which migrated to the United
    States for administration including:

    (i) In 1651 the Act for the Settlement of Ireland 1651-52 which introduced
    the concept of “settlements”, enemies of the state and restrictions of
    movement in states of “emeregency”; and
    (ii) In 1861 the Emergency Powers Act 1861; and
    (iii) In 1931 the Emergency Relief and Construction Act 1931-32; and
    (iv) in 2001 the Patriot Act 2001.
    Canon 2044 (link)
    Since 1591, there has been a third series of Cestui Que Vie Estates concerning
    the property of “soul” and ecclesiastical rights which migrated to the United
    States for administration including:
    (i) In 1661 the Act of Settlement 1661-62; and
    (ii) In 1871 the District of Columbia Act 1871; and
    (iii) In 1941 the Lend Lease Act 1941.
    Canon 2045 (link)
    By 1815 and the bankruptcy of the Crown and Bank of England by the
    Rothschilds, for the 1st time, the Cestui Que Vie Trusts of the United Kingdom
    became assets placed in private banks effectively becoming “private trusts” or
    “Fide Commissary Trusts” administered by commissioners (guardians). From
    1835 and the Wills Act, these private trusts have been also considered “Secret
    Trusts” whose existence does not need to be divulged.
    Canon 2046 (link)
    From 1917/18 with the enactment of the Sedition Act and the Trading with the
    Enemy Act in the United States and through the United Kingdom, the citizens of
    the Commonwealth and the United States became effectively “enemies of
    the state” and “aliens” which in turn converted the “Fide Commissary” private
    secret trusts to “Foreign Situs” (Private International) Trusts.
    Canon 2047 (link)
    In 1931, the Roman Cult, also known as the Vatican created the Bank for
    International Settlements for the control of claimed property of associated private
    central banks around the world. Upon the deliberate bankruptcy of most
    countries, private central banks were installed as administrators and the global
    Cestui Que Vie/Foreign Situs Trustsystem was implemented from 1933 onwards.

    Since 1933, when a child is borne in a State(Estate) under inferior Roman law,
    three (3) Cestui Que (Vie) Trusts are created upon certain presumptions,
    specifically designed to deny the child forever any rights of Real Property, any
    Rights as a Free Person and any Rights to be known as man and woman rather
    than a creature or animal, by claiming and possessing their Soul or Spirit.
    Canon 2050 (link)
    Since 1933, when a child is borne, the Executors or Administrators of the
    higher Estate knowingly and willinglyclaim the baby as chattel to the Estate. The
    slave baby contract is then created by honoring the ancient tradition of either
    having the ink impression of the feet of the baby onto the live birth record, or a
    drop of its blood as well as tricking the parents to signing the baby away through
    the deceitful legal meanings on the live birth record. This live birth record as a
    promissory note is converted into a slave bond sold to the private reserve bank of
    the estate and then conveyed into a 2nd and separate Cestui Que
    (Vie) Trust per child owned by the bank. Upon the promissory note reaching
    maturity and the bank being unable to “seize” the slave child, a maritime lien is
    lawfully issued to “salvage” the lost property and itself monetized as currency
    issued in series against the Cestui Que (Vie) Trust.
    Canon 2052 (link)
    The Three (3) Cestui Que Vie Trusts are the specific denial of rights of Real
    Property, Personal Property and Ecclesiastical Property for most men and
    women, corresponds exactly to the three forms of law available to the Galla of the
    Bar Association Courts. The first form of law is corporate commercial law is
    effective because of the 1st Cestui Que Vie Trust. The second form of law
    is maritime and trust law is effective because of the 2nd Cestui Que Vie Trust.
    The 3rd form of law is Talmudic and Roman Cult law is effective because of the
    3rd Cestui Que Vie Trustof Baptism.
    Canon 2053 (link)
    The Birth Certificate issued under Roman Law represents the modern equivalent
    to the Settlement Certificates of the 17th century and signifies the holder as a
    pauper and effectively a Roman Slave. The Birth Certificate has no direct
    relationship to the private secret trusts controlled by the private banking network,
    nor can it be used to force the administration of a state or nation to divulge the
    existence of these secret trusts.

    Canon 2054 (link)
    PO Box 9144
    Harris Park NSW Australia




    Royal means REAL.


    2Ch 19:8

    In Jerusalem, Jehoshaphat appointed some of the Levites and priests and clan leaders in Israel to serve as judges for cases involving the LORD's regulations and for civil disputes.




     2Ch 19:11

    “Amariah the high priest will have final say in all cases involving the LORD. Zebadiah son of Ishmael, a leader from the tribe of Judah, will have final say in all civil cases. The Levites will assist you in making sure that justice is served. Take courage as you fulfill your duties, and may the LORD be with those who do what is right.”




     Mat 12:25

    Jesus knew their thoughts and replied, “Any kingdom divided by civil war is doomed. A town or family splintered by feuding will fall apart.




     Mar 3:24

    “A kingdom divided by civil war will collapse.




     Luk 11:17

    He knew their thoughts, so he said, “Any kingdom divided by civil war is doomed. A family splintered by feuding will fall apart.



    g4177 πολίτης πολίτης   politēs


    a citizen

    1. the inhabitant of any city or country

    2. the association of another in citizenship

      1. a fellow citizen, fellow countryman




    πολῑ́της  (polī́tēsm (genitive πολῑ́του); first declension (Attic, Koine)

    1. citizen, freeman
    2. fellow citizen, compatriot




    Luke 15:
    15 And he went and joined himself to citizen G4177 of that country; and he sent him into his fields to feed swine.


    Luke 19:
    14 But his citizens G4177 hated him, and sent a message after him, saying, We will not have this man to reign over us.


    Acts 21:
    39 But Paul said, I am a man which am a Jew of Tarsus, a city in Cilicia, citizen G4177 of no mean city: and, I beseech thee, suffer me to speak unto the people.


    Strong's H7379 - riyb

    rev (Key)
    Part of Speech
    masculine noun
    Root Word (Etymology)
    Dictionary Aids

    TWOT Reference: 2159a

    KJV Translation Count — Total: 62x
    The KJV translates Strong's H7379 in the following manner: cause (24x), strife (16x), controversy (13x), contention (2x), miscellaneous (7x).
    Outline of Biblical Usage [?]
    1. strife, controversy, dispute

      1. strife, quarrel

      2. dispute, controversy, case at law


    Strong’s Definitions [?](Strong’s Definitions Legend)
    רִיב rîyb, reeb; or רִב rib; from H7378; a contest (personal or legal):— adversary, cause, chiding, contend(-tion), controversy, multitude (from the margin), pleading, strife, strive(-ing), suit.
    case at law


    Naar navigatie springenNaar zoeken springen

    Jurisprudentie (Latijn: iuris prudentia, door de bezigheden van prudentes ‘adviseurs, experts’) is het geheel van uitspraken van rechters. De term kan ook refereren aan de filosofie, wetenschap en toepassing van recht, maar dit concept is meestal bekend als rechtsgeleerdheid of rechtswetenschap.

    Oude Rome

    Deze betekenissen had het al in het Oude Rome. Al werd het oorspronkelijk uitsluitend beoefend door het college van priesters. Deze priesters hadden een exclusieve bevoegdheid om te oordelen over de feiten. Hierdoor waren zij de enige experts in het jus of traditioneel recht (mores maiorum). Dit traditioneel recht bestond uit gesproken recht en gewoontes die van vader op zoon werden doorgegeven. Priesters creëerden hiermee indirect een rechtssysteem door hun uitspraken in individuele concrete zaken. Dit rechtssysteem van uitspraken vormt nu nog de basis van het Angelsaksische rechtssysteem, waaronder het common law.

    Hun uitspraken waren bedoeld als eenvoudige interpretaties van traditionele gewoontes, maar uiteindelijk leidde deze activiteit, apart van formeel herkennen van iedere zaak wat gebruikelijk was in het gewoonterecht, naar een meer rechtvaardige interpretatie waarmee samenhangend de sociale gebruiken vernieuwd werden.

    Na de 3e eeuw werd de iuris prudentia meer een bureaucratische aangelegenheid, met weinig noemenswaardige auteurs. Het was pas tijdens het Byzantijnse Rijk in de 5e eeuw dat er weer bestudering van het recht plaatsvond. Tijdens deze culturele omslag (529) werd het Corpus Iuris Civilis op gezag van Keizer Justinianus opgesteld.


    In Engeland en andere Common law-landen is jurisprudentie een belangrijk onderdeel van het positieve recht. In tegenstelling tot de meeste Europese landen, waaronder Nederland, waar het recht grotendeels is vastgelegd in wetboeken, is het Engelse recht een combinatie van wettenrecht (statute law), gewoonterecht (customary law) en jurisprudentie of rechtersrecht (case law).


    De wetenschap of bestudering van recht wordt in Nederland rechtsgeleerdheid genoemd. Met jurisprudentie bedoelt men in Nederland de toepassing van recht of (het geheel van) uitspraken door rechters. Jurisprudentie geldt als rechtsbron in Nederland. De precedentwerking van Nederlandse jurisprudentie is minder strikt dan de precedentwerking in Engeland.

    Bijvoorbeeld bij de interpretatie van wettelijke termen die voor meerdere uitleg vatbaar zijn, kan jurisprudentie van belang zijn. Het gaat dan bijvoorbeeld om termen als redelijk en billijk, binnen een redelijke termijn, of zorgvuldig. Het is dan aan de rechter om te interpreteren (uit te leggen) wat er met zo'n term bedoeld wordt.

    Bij de interpretatie van het recht verzinnen rechters niet zomaar iets: ze maken gebruik van interpretatiemethoden en redeneerwijzen. Er worden zes interpretatiemethoden en twee redeneerwijzen onderscheiden.


    1. De grammaticale interpretatiemethode
    2. De wetshistorische interpretatiemethode
    3. De rechtshistorische interpretatiemethode
    4. Systematische interpretatiemethode
    5. Teleologische interpretatiemethode
    6. Anticiperende interpretatiemethode


    1. A contrarioredenering: zaken die niet specifiek worden genoemd in de wet, worden uitgesloten. Stel dat een wet alleen gaat over arbeidsovereenkomsten, dan worden bijvoorbeeld freelance overeenkomsten daarvan uitgesloten.
    2. Redenering naar analogie: Zaken die erg veel op elkaar lijken, worden gelijk (naar analogie) geïnterpreteerd.


    Zie hier een lijst met jurisprudentie, gesorteerd per vakgebied.

    Zie ook

    • Moresprudentie - is het leren van afwegingen en keuzes bij ethische dilemma’s om in nieuwe (vergelijkbare) situaties het goede te doen.





    Een priester of priesteres is in de meeste religies een beambte die als leider of voorganger van cultische handelingen optreedt als bemiddelaar tussen haar godheid (of godheden) en de mensen. Het woord is via het Latijnse presbyter afgeleid van het Griekseπρεσβύτερος; presbuteros dat "oude(re) man" of "ouderling" betekent.




    Hebrews 11:
    16 But now they desire a better country, that is, an heavenly: wherefore God is not ashamed to be called their God: for he hath prepared for them a city.


    Hebrews 12:
    22 But ye are come unto mount Sion, and unto the city of the living God, the heavenly Jerusalem, and to an innumerable company of angels,



    Marque is French for MARK.

    Think of your "ID" as a "Letter of Marque"...issued by a fictitious (that is, a non-living, dead entity),
    that has unlawfully-converted your rights into a privilege, which may be revoked at any time by the issuing
    entity... leaving one (who identifies through the use of such an instrument) without rights AND privileges
    by the penalizing entity upon [their] rescission... at which point the one "issued"license "is sued".
    Challenge ALL existing "contracts"(if deemed necessary) and scrutinize EVERY offer, before acceptance!!!



    Letter of marque


    For the novel, see The Letter of Marque.
    Letter of marque given to Captain Antoine Bollo 
    via the shipowner Dominique Malfino from Genoa,
    owner of the Furet, a 15-tonne privateer,
    27 February 1809

    A letter of marque and reprisal (French: lettre de marque; lettre de course) was a government license in the Age of Sail that authorized a private person, known as a privateer or corsair, to attack and capture vessels of a nation at war with the issuer. Once captured, the privateers could then bring the case of that prize before their own admiralty court for condemnation and transfer of ownership to the privateer. A letter of marque and reprisal would include permission to cross an international border to conduct a reprisal (take some action against an attack or injury) and was authorized by an issuing jurisdiction to conduct reprisal operations outside its borders.

    Popular among Europeans from the late Middle Ages up to the 19th century, cruising for enemy prizes with a letter of marque was considered an honorable calling that combined patriotism and profit. Such privateering contrasted with attacks and captures of random ships, which was unlicensed and known as piracy; piracy was almost universally reviled.[1] In reality, the differences between privateers and pirates were often at best subtle and at worst a matter of interpretation.[2][3]

    In addition to the meaning of the license itself, the terms letter of marque and privateer were sometimes used to describe the vessels used to pursue and capture prizes. In this context, a letter of marque was a lumbering, square-rigged cargo carrier that might pick up a prize if the opportunity arose in its normal course of duties. In contrast, the term privateer generally referred to a fast and weatherly fore-and-aft rigged vessel, heavily armed and heavily crewed, intended exclusively for fighting.[4]

    Etymology and history of nomenclature

    Marque derives from the Old English mearc, which is from the Germanic *mark-, which means boundary, or boundary marker, which is derived from the Proto-Indo-European root *merǵ-, meaning boundary, or border. The French marque is from the Provençal language marca, which is from marcar, also Provençal, meaning, seize as a pledge.

    According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the first recorded use of "letters of marque and reprisal" was in an English statute in 1354 during the reign of Edward III. The phrase referred to "a licen[c]e granted by a sovereign to a subject, authorizing him to make reprisals on the subjects of a hostile state for injuries alleged to have been done to him by the enemy's army."


    Early history

    Drake viewing treasure taken from a Spanish ship, print[6] courtesy New York Public Library

    During the Middle Ages, armed private vessels enjoying their sovereign's tacit consent, if not always an explicit formal commission, regularly raided shipping of other nations, as in the case of Francis Drake's attacks on Spanish shipping, of which Elizabeth I (despite protestations of innocence) took a share.[7] Grotius's 1604 seminal work on international law, De Iure Praedae (Of The Law of Prize and Booty), was an advocate's brief defending Dutch raids on Spanish and Portuguese shipping.[8]

    King Henry III of England first issued what later became known as privateering commissions in 1243.[9] These early licences were granted to specific individuals to seize the king’s enemies at sea in return for splitting the proceeds between the privateers and The Crown.


    The letter of marque and reprisal first arose in 1295,[10] 50 years after wartime privateer licenses were first issued. According to Grotius, letters of marque and reprisal were akin to a "private war", a concept alien to modern sensibilities but related to an age when the ocean was lawless and all merchant vessels sailed armed for self-defense.[11] A reprisal involved seeking the sovereign's permission to exact private retribution against some foreign prince or subject. The earliest instance of a licensed reprisal recorded in England was in the year 1295 under the reign of Edward I.[12] The notion of reprisal, and behind it that just war involved avenging a wrong, clung to the letter of marque until 1620 in England, in that to apply for one a shipowner had to submit to the Admiralty Court an estimate of actual losses.[13]


    Licensing privateers during wartime became widespread in Europe by the 16th Century,[14] when most countries[15] began to enact laws regulating the granting of letters of marque and reprisal.[16] Business could be very profitable; during the eight years of the American Revolutionary War ships from the tiny island of Guernsey carrying letter of marque captured French and American vessels to the value of £900,000 and continued to operate during the Napoleonic Wars.[17]

    Although privateering commissions and letters of marque were originally distinct legal concepts, such distinctions became purely technical by the eighteenth century.[18] The United States Constitution, for instance, states that "The Congress shall have Power To ... grant Letters of marque and reprisal ...",[19] without separately addressing privateer commissions.


    During the American War of Independence, Napoleonic Wars, and the War of 1812, it was common to distinguish verbally between privateers (also known as private ships of war) on the one hand, and armed merchantmen, which were referred to as "letters of marque", on the other, though both received the same commission. The Sir John Sherbrooke (Halifax) was a privateer; the Sir John Sherbrooke (Saint John) was an armed merchantman. The East India Company arranged for letters of marque for its East Indiamen such as the Lord Nelson, not so that they could carry cannons to fend off warships, privateers, and pirates on their voyages to India and China—that they could do without permission—but so that, should they have the opportunity to take a prize, they could do so without being guilty of piracy. Similarly, the Earl of Mornington, an East India Company packet ship of only six guns, too carried a letter of marque.


    In July 1793, the East Indiamen Royal Charlotte, Triton, and Warley participated in the capture of Pondichéry by maintaining a blockade of the port. Afterwards, as they were on their way to China, the same three East Indiamen participated in an action in the Straits of Malacca. They came upon a French frigate, with some six or seven British[clarification needed] prizes, replenishing her water casks ashore. The three British vessels immediately gave chase. The frigate fled towards the Sunda Strait. The Indiamen were able to catch up with a number of the prizes, and, after a few cannon shots, were able to retake them. Had they not carried letters of marque, such behaviour might well have qualified as piracy. Similarly, on 10 November 1800 the East Indiaman Phoenix captured the French privateer General Malartic,[20] under Jean-Marie Dutertre, an action made legal by a letter of marque. Additionally, vessels with a letter of marque were exempt from having to sail in convoy, and nominally their crew members were exempt, during a voyage, from impressment.[21]

    During the Napoleonic Wars there were also two cases (Dart and Kitty), where British privateers spent some months off the coast of Sierra Leone hunting slave-trading vessels.


    Applying for, and legal effect of, letter of marque

    The body of Captain William Kidd hanging in a gibbet over the Thames, the result of confusion over whether Captain Kidd took prizes legally under a letter of marque, or illegally as a pirate.

    The procedure for issuing letters of marque and the issuing authority varied by time and circumstance. In colonial America, for instance, colonial governors issued them in the name of the king. During the American War of Independence, first the state legislatures, then both the states and the Continental Congress, then, after ratification of the Constitution, Congress authorized and the President signed letters of marque. A shipowner would send in an application stating the name, description, tonnage, and force (armaments) of the vessel, the name and residence of the owner, and the intended number of crew, and tendered a bond promising strict observance of the country's laws and treaties and of international laws and customs. The commission was granted to the vessel, not to its captain, often for a limited time or specified area, and stated the enemy upon whom attacks were permitted. For instance, during the Second Barbary War President James Madison authorized the Salem, Mass., brig Grand Turk to cruise against "Algerine vessels, public or private, goods and effects, of or belonging to the Dey of Algiers".[22] (This particular commission was never put to use, as it was issued the same day the treaty was signed ending the U.S. involvement in the war—July 3, 1815.)


    In Britain and in the 18th century, a Letter of Marque was issued by the High Court of Admiralty of Britain. It was normal for the proposed privateer to pay a deposit or bond, possibly £1,500 (current value £150,000) as surety for good behaviour. The details of the ship, including tonnage, crew and weapons were recorded. The ownership of these ships was often split into ⅛ shares. Prizes were assessed and valued with profits split in pre agreed proportions between the government, the owners and the captain and crew.[23]:75


    A letter of marque and reprisal in effect converted a private merchant vessel into a naval auxiliary. A commissioned privateer enjoyed the protection and was subject to the obligations of the laws of war. If captured, the crew was entitled to honorable treatment as prisoners of war, while without the licence they were deemed mere pirates "at war with all the world," criminals who were properly hanged.[24]


    For this reason, enterprising maritime raiders commonly took advantage of "flag of convenience" letters of marque, shopping for cooperative governments to license and legitimize their depredations. French/Irishman Captain Luke Ryan and his lieutenants in just over two years commanded six vessels under the flags of three different nations and on opposite sides in the same war.[25] Likewise the notorious Lafitte brothers in New Orleans cruised under letters of marque secured by bribery from corrupt officials of tenuous Central American governments, to cloak plunder with a thin veil of legality.[26]


    Adjudicating captures, invalid letter of marque, or illegal cruelty

    The letter of marque by its terms required privateers to bring captured vessels and their cargoes before admiralty courts of their own or allied countries for condemnation. Applying the rules and customs of prize law, the courts decided whether the letter of marque was valid and current, and whether the captured vessel or its cargo in fact belonged to the enemy (not always easy, when flying false flags was common practice), and if so the prize and its cargo were "condemned", to be sold at auction with the proceeds divided among the privateer's owner and crew. A prize court's formal condemnation was required to transfer title; otherwise the vessel's previous owners might well reclaim her on her next voyage, and seek damages for the confiscated cargo.[27]


    Often questions arose as to the legitimacy of the letter of marque in the case of divided sovereignty during civil wars. An English court, for instance, refused to recognize the letters of marque issued by rebellious Ireland under James II, and hanged eight privateer captains as pirates. Seventy-nine years later during the American Civil War, the Union charged officers and crew of the Confederate privateer Savannah with piracy, calling their letter of marque invalid since the Union refused to acknowledge the breakaway Confederacy as a sovereign nation.[28] The case resulted in a hung jury, and after Confederate President Jefferson Davis threatened to retaliate by hanging one Union officer for each executed Confederate privateer, the Union relented and thereafter treated Confederate privateersmen honorably as prisoners of war.[29][30]


    Privateers were also required by the terms of their letters of marque to obey the laws of war, honour treaty obligations (avoid attacking neutrals), and in particular to treat captives as courteously and kindly as they safely could.[31] If they failed to live up to their obligations, the Admiralty courts could — and did — revoke the letter of marque, refuse to award prize money, forfeit bonds, or even award tort (personal injury) damages against the privateer's officers and crew.[32]


    Abolition of privateering

    This section needs expansion with: background on when major European nations and the US (Asian, and others) abolished privateering. You can help by adding to it. (March 2018)

    Nations often agreed by treaty to forgo privateering, as England and France repeatedly did starting with the diplomatic overtures of Edward III in 1324; privateering nonetheless recurred in every war between them for the next 500 years.[33]

    Benjamin Franklin had attempted to persuade the French to lead by example and stop issuing letters of marque to their corsairs, but the effort foundered when war loomed with Britain once again.[34] The French Convention did forbid the practice, but it was reinstated after the Thermidorian Reaction, in August 1795; on 26 September 1797, the Ministry of the Navy was authorized to sell small ships to private parties for this purpose.[35]


    Finally, after the Congress of Paris at the end of the Crimean War, seven European nations signed the Paris Declaration of 1856 renouncing privateering, and forty-five more eventually joined them, which in effect abolished privateering worldwide.[36] The United States was not a signatory to that declaration. Despite the attempt to end privateering around the world, nations continued issuing letters of marque. In 1879 at the beginning of the War of the Pacific, Bolivia issued letters of marque to any vessels willing to fight for them. At the time Bolivia was under threat from Chile's fleet but had no navy.


    20th century

    In December 1941 and the first months of 1942, Goodyear commercial L class blimp Resolute operating out of Moffett Field in Sunnyvale, California, flew anti-submarine patrols. As the civilian crew was armed with a rifle, a persistent misconception arose that this made the ship a privateer and that she and sister commercial blimps were operated under letters of marque until the Navy took over operation.[37] Without congressional authorization, the Navy would not have been able to legally issue any letters of marque.


    21st-century American reconsideration of letters of marque

    Article 1 of the United States Constitution lists issuing letters of marque and reprisal in Section 8 as one of the enumerated powers of Congress, alongside the power to tax and to declare War. However, since the American Civil War, the United States as a matter of policy has consistently followed the terms of the 1856 Paris Declaration forbidding the practice. The United States has not legally commissioned any privateers since 1815, although the status of submarine-hunting Goodyear airships in the early days of World War II created significant confusion. Various accounts refer to airships Resolute and Volunteer as operating under a "privateer status", but Congress never authorized a commission, nor did the President sign one.[38]


    The issue of marque and reprisal was raised before Congress after the September 11 attacks[39] and again on July 21, 2007, by Congressman Ron Paul. The attacks were defined as acts of "air piracy" and the Marque and Reprisal Act of 2001 was introduced, which would have granted the president the authority to use letters of marque and reprisal against the specific terrorists, instead of warring against a foreign state. The terrorists were compared to pirates in that they are difficult to fight by traditional military means.[40] On April 15, 2009, Paul also advocated the use of letters of marque to address the issue of Somali pirates operating in the Gulf of Aden. However, the bills Paul introduced were not enacted into law.





    Voorbeeld van een Franse kaperbrief

    Een kaperbrief was een brief die door de overheid of koning werd geschreven, waarmee een schip dat die brieven aan boord had het recht werd gegeven om schepen van vijandelijke mogendheden aan te vallen en leeg te roven. De kapitein die een dergelijke brief had verworven (en ook wel zijn schip) werd een kaper genoemd.

    Hoewel kaperij in theorie een methode van economische oorlogvoering was, was het in de praktijk in veel gevallen niets meer dan door de overheid gesanctioneerde en/of gelegitimeerde piraterij.

    Bekende kapers met een kaperbrief waren onder anderen De Victualiënbroeders, de Geuzen, de Nederlander Piet Heyn, de Fransen Robert Surcouf en Jan Baert ("de schrik van de Noordzee") en de Engelsen Francis Drake, Walter Raleigh, William Kidd, Henry Morgan. Deze laatste twee werden later trouwens door hun eigen regering vervolgd wegens piraterij.




    What do you think your birth certificate is???