Hebrews 9:

27 And as it is appointed unto men once to die, but after this the judgment:


Acts 16:

16 And it came to pass, as we went to prayer, a certain damsel possessed with a spirit of divination met us, which brought her masters much gain by soothsaying:


Matthew 11:
28 Come unto me, all ye that labour and are heavy laden, and I will give you rest.
29 Take my yoke upon you, and learn of me; for I am meek and lowly in heart: and ye shall find rest unto your souls.
30 For my yoke is easy, and my burden is light.






Plants of the Bible:


Travel Jobs – How to Make Money While Travelling the World | NOMADasaurus Adventure Travel Blog



Dan Shelley 777




Christian Communities world safe locations,ccwsl


Inch Bag

I am Never Coming Home BAG


  • Towel
  • Toothbrush/Tootpaste
  • Hair-/hand Soap
  • Cotton swabs
  • Brush/comb
  • Glasses/Contact lenses and products




  • Storm Lantern
  • Head light
  • 100% Natural Beeswax Candles


  • Tarp
  • Tent
  • Poncho and Poncho liner (woobie)
  • Wool Blanket / wollen deken
  • Fleece blanket / Fleece deken
  • Emergency Bivvy
  • sleeping bag, liner
  • Stevige isolerende reddingsdeken
  • Hammock


Use: Poncho liner/Woobie

1. Summer sleeping bag
2. Inner sleeping bag for modular sleeping systems
3. Universal blanket
4. Hammock underquilt



Bushcraft Hammock & Tarp Setup

NEMO | Tango & Tango Duo Ultralight Down Sleeping Bags

the details


The popular NEMO Tango™ is luxury ultralight, merging the concept of a backcountry quilt with the shape of a rectangular bag, for a super-compressible, ultralight sleep solution that will keep you warm and comfy.

The backless design shaves weight; the included pad slipcover is soft and washable; and the comforter is filled with 100% RDS certified 650 FP down. Tango™ is updated in 2019 with thoughtful features, sculpting and a compression stuff sack.




  • Our 20D Nylon Ripstop shell and 30D Nylon Taffeta lining provide an ultralight, luxury sleep experience.
  • Premium 650FP 100% Responsible Down Standard (RDS) Certified down offers packability and warmth while ensuring traceability and humane treatment throughout the supply chain.
  • Trapezoidal sculplting reduces dead air space to retain warmth.
  • Blanket Fold™ external draft collar provides tucked-in comfort.
  • Included slipcover is soft and washable.
  • Backless design shaves weight for ultralight adventure.
  • Compresses into a tiny packed size.
  • Compatible with most pads, including the Tensor™ series, Vector™, Astro™, and Astro™ Lite. Tango™ is not compatible with the Cosmo™ 3D.

    Tango™ Solo is compatible with most 25" pads.

    Tango™ Duo Slim is compatible with two 20" pads..

    Tango™ Duo Regular is compatible with two 25" pads.

  • Protected by the NEMO Lifetime Warranty.



Bushcraft Outdoor

Clothing & Layering

Wool v Down v Fleece

Poly cotton part
80% synsthetic
20 % cotton
wax (bees wax oarafine wax) Impregnation for your greenland garments Irioning in it and tumble dry it.
Fjäll Räven

100% merino wol sokken
1 pair thick to sleep with
Several thin wool socks for longer duration


Polyester elastan:
Merino wool: t-shirt
minimal 1 extra set


Base layer: between your underwear and midlayer
long Johns and zipper long sleeve

Nookie Iceman All-In-One Thermal Suit - Airforce Green
Nookie ICEMAN Thermal Suit Water Hydration - Ice Black - Thermal Warm Heat Layer Layers
Polyester / Synthetic (for to sleep with when it is realy cold)


Base layer: Fleece
(Slecht voorbeeld deze ging snel stuk:
5.11 Tactical 1/4 Zip Fleece - Field Green

Fjallraven G-1000 shirt

Wool main garment:
Swanndri Ranger Shirt
Swanndri Men's Ranger Wool Zip Front Bushshirt
$189.95 NZD = € 110

Swanndri Men's Original Wool Bushshirt

Skip to the end of the images gallery
Skip to the beginning of the images gallery
$319.95 NZD = € 186


Fjallraven Vidda Pro woman



Rain pants:
Sprayway Walking W Rainpant Regular Dames € 75


Ridgeline Bushmaster Smock (more breathable when you are active)
Ridgeline Evolution Waterproof Smock £229.95 = € 255 (NL website €330.00)


Wool hat

shemagh scarf


Gloves in wet weather:


Mesh sack rectangle with a drawstring: (spare clothing)

  • 1 wool socks 100% (merino) 
  • 1 underwear boxershorts
  • 1 T-shirt
  • 1 pair mid layer or base layer top



  • 2/3 underwear
  • 2/3 T-shirts
  • 2/3 socks
  • 1 mid layer




Combustion DEVICE (Fire) / vuur

  • Ferror Rod
  • Bic Lighter
  • Vaseline
  • Knife
  • Matches / lucifers
  • Fat wood
  • Light my fire
  • Leather work gloves
  • Cotton
  • WetFire
  • Flint and steel
  • Char Cloth




Cordage / Touw

  • Paracord 550
  • Twine Tarred Bank line size 36
  • Twine
  • Rope
  • Titan SurvivorCord

Cooking / Koken


Ti DX stand for Alcohol Stove EBY257

Designed to be used in a number of ways: as a lightweight, compact wood-burning stove, in conjunction with EVERNEW Alcohol Stove (sold separately [EBY254] or as a set [ECA268 & EBY255]), or with solid fuel

Fits nicely inside of EVERNEW 500ml Pot for easy packing








General hygiene / algemene hygiëne

First aid Kit

Hygiene for woman / hygiëne voor vrouwen

and kids


Cloth Diapering for Beginners


What's inside 

a reusable

cloth menstrual pad?




Wash them in cold water for removing the stains.

Wash them in hot water for sanitary purposes.

Do not use bleach or fabric softener.

Repeat the wash and dry cycle at least 3-5 times before putting the diaper on your baby. 

Diapers will be suitable for day use, but will not reach peak absorbency until 10 washes. 

It is recommended to wait until a diaper is fully absorbent before using it during naps or bedtime.



Cloth Diaper Preparation


Now that you have decided to cloth diaper your baby, it's time to work on your cloth diaper prep. There are a few things to consider when prepping your diapers, so read below and feel free to contact us if you have any questions.

Why Do We Prep Cloth Diapers?

Cloth diaper preparation, often referred to simply as "prep", is simply making your diapers usable for your baby. There are two main reasons you want to prep your cloth diapers:

  1. Make sure they are clean before putting them on your baby. Cloth diapers are worn against your baby's most sensitive areas, so we want to make sure they are clean when you put them on your baby. Cloth diapers are a manufacturered item - and that process, whether at the hands of a work-at-home-mom (WAHM) or in a larger manufacturing facility, does not happen within the confines of your own home. A pre-wash cleanses away any of your concerns.
  2. Remove natural plant oils from natural fibers. Cotton, hemp, and bamboo fabrics all retain some of their natural plant oils. Oils inhibit absorption, so it is important to remove the natural oils from the fabric to make the diapers functional. Plant crops vary from season to season, so you may find the same fabric type takes more or less washes to be prepped when you buy diapers from different batches. For the most part, natural-based fabrics reach optimum absorbency after 10 washes, but can often be used during the daytime after 3-5 washes.


How Do I Prep My Cloth Diapers?

The first thing you want to do when prepping diapers is check your product tags and determine what types of fabric you have. The fabric content of your diapers wil determine what you need to do to prep your diapers.

  • Polyester - Polyester comprises stay-dry linings and microterry. If your diapers are 100% polyester or a polyester-nylon blend, the diaper just needs to be washed once before use. In theory a polyester diaper does not need to be prepped, but we recommend a wash before using as an added health and safety measure.
    1. Place diapers in your washer with an appropriate amount of detergent.
    2. Run a hot (110-140° F) wash cycle.
    3. Rinse a second time to ensure all detergent has been removed.
    4. Hang to dry or machine dry on low heat.
    5. Do not use bleach or fabric softener.
  • Cotton, hemp, and bamboo - Natural fibers require multiple washes to become absorbent. In general, the darker the fiber, the more washes it will take to become fully prepped. Whiter fibers have already had some of the natural plant oils removed from the fiber during the manufacturing process. Please note, shrinkage is normal and to be expected when prepping natural fiber diapers. Cotton and hemp diapers tend to shrink 10-15%, but bamboo will shrink up to 20%.
    1. Place diapers in your washer with an appropriate amount of detergent.
    2. Run a hot (110-140° F) wash cycle.
    3. Rinse a second time to ensure all detergent has been removed.
    4. Machine dry on low heat. Using the dryer helps make the fabric quiltier and softer, so it is recommended to use the dryer until your diapers are fully absorbent.
    5. Repeat the wash and dry cycle at least 3-5 times before putting the diaper on your baby.
    6. Diapers will be suitable for day use, but will not reach peak absorbency until 10 washes. It is recommended to wait until a diaper is fully absorbent before using it during naps or bedtime.
    7. Do not use bleach or fabric softener.


Cloth Diaper Prep FAQs


  1. I have a small number of diapers to prep. How can I save water and energy consumption?
    It is okay to mix your diapers with other household laundry that is washed on the same temperature. Be mindful of mixing the colors, so your diapers and laundry do not bleed onto one another. Natural fibers can be prepped with whites and sheets. I do not generally recommend prepping with towels as they are bulkier and can occasionally cause excess pilling.
  2. Can I mix fabric types in my prep washes?
    All natural fibers can be prepped together. I general recommend segregating synthetic (polyester) fibers so they do not retain any of the plant oils from your natural fibers. Once your diapers are prepped, they can all be washed together.
  3. How do I prepped used or preowned diapers?
    Previously used diapers should already be fully absorbent. In this situation we recommend washing in hot with 1/8-1/4 a cup of chlorine bleach to make sure the diapers are properly sanitized. This is one of the few times you should use bleach on your diapers.
  4. I really want to start using cloth diapers ASAP. Which diapers prep the fastest?
    Prep washing can sometimes take up to 24 hours of continuous washing, which can be a bummer for anxious parents. Polyester fibers are ready to go after one wash. If you are looking for a natural fiber, then you should go with white cotton or hemp prefolds or flats. The Thirsties and Geffen Baby brand hemp products are white and prep faster than other hemp products in our store.




You Won't Survive With a Bug Out Bag



Wild Edibles


Spring is such a great time for foraging and eating wild edible salads. In this salad, I've got 18 different plants -- some weeds, some trees, and some flowers.


It's easy to make great wild edible salads once you know how to identify the plants.

Here are three tips: (1) Pick clean. (2) Pick organized, so there's no contamination from plants that nobody should eat, and (3) Cut everything into small pieces. That really mixes the flavors of all the plants.


Here are the plants:
1. Tulips - Tulipa spp.
2. Wild field mustard flowers - Brassica rapa
3. Apple flower petals - Malus spp.
4. Purple deadnettle - Lamium purpureum
5. Hop shoots - Humulus lupulus
6. Hedge mustard - Sisymbrium officinale
7. Arugula - Eruca sativa
8. American Elm seeds and leaves - Ulmus americana
9. Wild Lettuce - Lactuca serriola
10. Lemon Balm - Melissa officinalis
11. Hawthorn tree leaves - Crataegus spp.
12. Bittercress - Cardamine hirsuta
13. Nipplewort - Lapsana communis
14. Dandelion leaves and flowers - Taraxacum officinale
15. Tamarack needles - Larix laricina
16. Chickweed - Stellaria media
17. Cat's-ear - Hypochaeris radicata
18. English Daisy - Bellis perennis


wilde mosterd plant bloemen
Appel bloemblaadjes alleen
Paarse dovenetel jonge blaadjes zonder zaden


1. Tulpen - Tulipa spp.
2. Mosterdbloemen in het veld - Brassica rapa
3. Appelbloembloemblaadjes - Malus spp.
4. Paarse deadnettle - Lamium purpureum
5. Hop schiet - Humulus lupulus
6. Haagmosterd - Sisymbrium officinale
7. Rucola - Eruca sativa
8. Amerikaanse iepzaden en -bladeren - Ulmus americana
9. Wilde sla - Lactuca serriola
10. Citroenmelisse - Melissa officinalis
11. Meidoornboombladeren - Crataegus spp.
12. Bittercress - Cardamine hirsuta
13. Nipplewort - Lapsana communis
14. Paardebloembladeren en bloemen - Taraxacum officinale
15. Tamarack-naalden - Larix laricina
16. Chickweed - Stellaria media
17. Kattenoor - Hypochaeris radicata
18. Engelse Daisy - Bellis perennis






Water Bottle
Water filter/Sawyer mini Life straw
Fire starter
Navigation: map/compass
First aid kit




het dorp van Lis ende Vlodorp

landen de ghier

Abdij van Rijnsburg » Inventaris nr. 693

B., Financieel beheer van de abdij en haar goederen.
VII., Tienden der abdij.
3., Rottenvlet onder Rijnsburg, Oegstgeest en Oegstgeesterambacht.
693, Eigendomsbewijs van de tienden in Kerkwerve en Rijnsburg, in ruil voor goederen in Noordwijk, Voorhout, Lisse en Vlodorp. 1259. 1 charter

Dit inventarisnummer is alleen als kopie te raadplegen.

Reg. no. 46.

Vgl. Reg. no. 48.

46 1259 Febr. 22.

"Aleydis van Hanonia, voogdes van Holland, verleent aan Theodericus van Teylinge in leen de geoderen, die abdis en convent in Rinsburg tot nog toe in eigendom bazaten, nl. 9½ akker in de parochie van Nortghe beneden Sitwende, met de ""werft"", die zij van gravin Petronilla hadden; de ""vronegers"" tussen Nortge en Vorhoute, de landen van de gebroeders Ougerus en Arnoldus Geir in Lisse en Vlodorp en de land en van wijlen Lisekine in Lisse en Hiltsebroic, alle welke goedere de abdis met Theodericus van Teylinge geruild heeft tegen zijn tienden in Kercwerve en Rinsburg, die hij van Aleyd in leen had, en de abdis in eigendom verkrijgt. Van de ruil is uitgezonderd een veen in Hiltsebroich van het bosch van Hillinghem tot Mere toe, dat de abdij tot eigen gebruik houdt."

Datum anno Domini M.CC.LVIII. in cathedra beati Petri.

Orig. ( 693). Met uithangend zegel en te genzegel van Aleyd in witte was. Andere zegels in het stuk genoemd zijn niet aanwezig.

Copie in 127 fol. 18.

Gedrukt Kluit IIII p. 739, van de Bergh II nr. 51.

Vgl. Van Mieris I p. 328.

Gedrukt: Kruisheer, OHZ, dl. III, p. 205-207, nr. 1205.

1406 december 28
470. I.v.m. 8 vranxe croenen per jaar die Jan de Ghier, van Aalst, vroeger ver-
kocht heeft aan Janne van Hedesem en zLjn vrouw bezet op zijn goed te Voor-
de, verkLaart jonkvrouw Kateline Ghiers, fa. Jan, met Janne van Montengis
alias van Autre, haar man en voogd, dat zij, wanneer haar vader sterft voor
jonkvrouw Mergrieten Wits, fa. Michiel, zijn vrouw, de helft van de rente
mag afkopen aan 8 penning voor 1.
F 19 /8.

Categorie: Patriciërsfamilie
De categorie Patriciërsfamilie is gereserveerd voor leden van families die gedurende tenminste 90 jaar of drie generaties een vooraanstaande en vaak leidinggevende rol speelden. Zie voor een verdere uitleg het lemma patriciaat.

Onder categorieën

Boeren, P. C. De oorsprong van Limburg en Gelre en enkele naburige heerschappijen. Maastricht, 1938.
Martens van Sevenhoven, A. H. Eenige opmerkingen over de vorming van het
Graafschap Gelre. In: Gelre 36 (1933), 1-22.
Monté Verloren, J. P. de. Gegevens over de verhouding van de heerlijkheid
Bronkhorst tot het Heilige Roomsche Rijk en tot het Graatschap Zutphen
voor 1570. In: Gelre 56 (1957), 125-165.
Schil/gaarde, A. P. van. De missie van Dr. Gerhardt Voeth als gezant van den
Graaf van den Bergh naar den Rijksdag te Regensburg (1576). In: Gelre 43
(1940), 11-91.
Het archief der heeren en graven van Culemborg. 's-Gravenhage, 1949. 3
Het archief van het huis Bergh. Nijmegen, 1932. 9 delen.
Het huis Bergh. Maastricht, 1950.
Struick, J. E.A. L. Gelre en Habsburg. 1492-1528. Arnhem, 1960.

Ghyer (Arnould de), curé de Haaften (voir Duijst),
1376: trois vantours cour. (Geld.) (Comp. les armes
de Duijst et Maurissen zoen).

Gyr, voir Berg.

Castile Soap made with 100% olive oil (the most gentle soap!) | Cold Process Soap Making



Here's the recipe:

600 g olive oil

109 g water (this recipe has 42% lye concentration solution)

 79 g sodium hydroxide

 18 g rosemary essential oil (3% of total oil amount)



600 g olijfolie
109 g water (dit recept heeft een oplossing met een concentratie van 42% loog)
79 g natriumhydroxide
18 g etherische olie van rozemarijn (3% of totale hoeveelheid olie)


Voor het verzepen voegen wij loog aan de vetten toe. Klinkt eng, is het niet. Het is scheikunde, eigenlijk heel interessant. Loog is een mix van Sodium Hydroxide en water. Door de Sodium Hydroxide bij het water te voegen ontstaat er een reactie. Dan ontstaat er loog. De grondstof die er voor zorgt dat we de oliën kunnen verzepen.







Gascartouche Butaan/Propaan (navulling)






Artelier Fay 26
Designer - Creator - Artist


Deze man kan regelen dat je "een ontheffing voor de mondkapjes" krijgt voor te kunnen reizen.



REINDEER PELT for hiking - Hands on History vlog

BEDROLL for Viking Hiking - Hands on History Vlog


    Using a Treadle Machine (and a tour)


    Go Berkey Water Filter Kit in Maxpedition Bottle Holder


    Hemp cordage
    Oil skin cloth fold into 1/3
    thigh high wool socks and shirt


    Matchcoat (grof wollen doek van ongeveer 2 meter lang)
    Leather and broche
    Tin cup
    Plate utensils (knife, fork, spoon)
    fire kit
    linsey woolsey quilt
    hat gloves scarf of wool
    shooting supplies
    hygiene kit

    The Quintessential Trekking Kit



    6 pools from 12 foot high
    10 foot high strapping the 3 main pools
    wrap it trice
    frap it twice
    start and end with a clove hitch
    9ft in between the 3 main pools
    10 X 20 tarp = 10 foot diameter
    ceiling 6 foot high


    How to make a DIY Tarp Teepee - Teepee Winter Campout Part 1

    How to Weather Proof a Tarp Teepee - Teepee Winter Campout Part 2

    Heating a Tarp Teepee Using the G2- 5" Folding Firebox Stove - Teepee Winter Campout Part 3

    MCQ Bushcraft & Wilderness Life



    how to make soap from wood ashes (lye water and tallow/lard)



    Birch Bark Resin: Bug Repellent

    Birch bark resin/tar is a dark tar like substance that is flammable and can be used as a natural bug repellent. It is a concentration of the oils found in the birch.


    Step 1: Supplies


    For this project you will need the following

    A dead birch tree that is not super old

    A popcorn tin or other tin with a lid

    A mason jar


    Step 2: Prepare the Tin


    First you will need to poke a hole in the bottom of your tin. To do this I set my tin in the grass and used a mallet to pound a screw driver through it. The hole was about as big as my small finger. Also, try to dent the bottom so that the resin will run into the jar.

    After the tin is ready you will need to collect birch bark. Always use the birch from a dead tree as to not damage or kill a living one. Peel off strips of bark and stuff them into the tin vertically. Try to fill the entire tin.


    Step 3: Prepare the Fire


    First you will need to dig a small hole to set the mason jar. Dig the hole just deep enough so that the opening of the jar is flush with the surface. Then set your tin full of bark on top of the jar, ensuring that the hole is over the opening. Then put the lid on the tin and begin to build a fire around it.

    After the fire was adequately surrounding the tin I let it burn for close to 40 minutes before removing it. To remove I simply and carefully knocked the wood back. Then I gently got the lid off and was able to grab the can with a deer skin glove and move it off the jar. After a few minutes goes by the jar is cool enough to quickly remove from the hole.


    Step 4: Uses


    In the Paleolithic era birch tar was used as an adhesive for fletching arrows and lashing rawhide. It can also be used to waterproof leather. It's main use is as a natural substitute for bug repellent. Simply apply to the neck and arms and you're ready for a hike in the woods!







    Manden vlechten:

    Het boek kost € 39.50. (Verzendkosten € 4,95). U kunt het boek bestellen door € 44,45 over te maken op bankrekening NL74TRIO 0777898160 t.n.v. De Vlechterij te Zeist, o.v.v. uw naam en adres. Wanneer het overgemaakte bedrag is bijgeschreven, verzenden wij uw bestelling. 




    Draagbare outdoor douche USB Douche




    • Pair Wool Socks
    • Pair Nylon Socks
    • Pair Cotton Socks
    • Boonie Hat
    • Bandana
    • Bamboo Gloves
    • Columbia Jacket
    • Merino Wool Shirt
    • Heavy Rain Poncho
    • Mosquito Netting
    • 2x Emergency Rain Ponchos



    Lightweight clothing Packing list:
    [1] Rain Jacket
    [1] Rain Pants [Optional]
    [1] Warm Jacket
    [1] Wool or Fleece Hat
    [1] Wool or Fleece Gloves
    [1] Hiking Pants or Shorts
    [1] Long Sleeve Shirt
    [1] Synthetic T-Shirt [Optional]

    [1-2] Synthetic Underwear
    [1] Long John Top & Bottom
    [1] Sun Hat
    [1] Bandana
    [2-3] Synethic Running Socks
    [1] Trail Running Shoes
    [1] Trail Running Gaiters [Optional]
    [1] Camp Shoes [Optional]







       Not smaller then:

    • 18" X 24"
    • 24" X 36"
    • 36" X 48"



    The art of Hand sewing leather by Al Stohlman

    The Leatherworking handbook by Valerie Michael











    Black Rotation Sternum Strap Hydration Bladder Tube Pipe Clip Holder Buckle MOLLE Tactical Backpack Webbing Travel Kits

    DETUCK 360°Rotatable Tube Clamp Hose Clip Fixture for Hydration Backpack(Pack of 2pcs)





    You know that they are LIARS so do also their so called charts. Just go where you feel that you can park with no problems. Borders are imaginary things that do NOT exist in the real world. Checkpoints are MAN made








    japanese whetstone:







    Cordura backpack stoffen: 



    ronde magneet:



    Website is ineens verdwenen:















    420 HD Nylon: (Backpack material)













    Hazel en Willow trees


    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

    "Coppice" redirects here. For the locality in Oldham, see Coppice, Greater Manchester.
    "Copse" redirects here. It is not to be confused with Corpse.

    Coppicing is a traditional method of woodland management which exploits the capacity of many species of trees to put out new shoots from their stump or roots if cut down. In a coppiced wood, which is called a copse, young tree stems are repeatedly cut down to near ground level, resulting in a stool. New growth emerges, and after a number of years, the coppiced tree is harvested, and the cycle begins anew. Pollarding is a similar process carried out at a higher level on the tree. Daisugi (Dai/sugi) is a similar Japanese technique.

    Many silviculture practices involve cutting and regrowth; coppicing has been of significance in many parts of lowland temperate Europe. The widespread and long-term practice of coppicing as a landscape-scale industry is something that remains of special importance in southern England. Many of the English-language terms referenced in this article are particularly relevant to historic and contemporary practice in that area.

    Typically a coppiced woodland is harvested in sections or coups[3] on a rotation. In this way, a crop is available each year somewhere in the woodland. Coppicing has the effect of providing a rich variety of habitats, as the woodland always has a range of different-aged coppice growing in it, which is beneficial for biodiversity. The cycle length depends upon the species cut, the local custom, and the use of the product. Birch can be coppiced for faggots on a three- or four-year cycle, whereas oak can be coppiced over a fifty-year cycle for poles or firewood.

    Coppicing maintains trees at a juvenile stage, and a regularly coppiced tree will never die of old age; some coppice stools may therefore reach immense ages. The age of a stool may be estimated from its diameter, and some are so large—perhaps as much as 5.4 metres (18 ft) across—that they are thought to have been continually coppiced for centuries.[4]


    Evidence suggests that coppicing has been continuously practised since pre-history.[5] Coppiced stems are characteristically curved at the base. This curve occurs as the competing stems grow out from the stool in the early stages of the cycle, then up towards the sky as the canopy closes. The curve may allow the identification of coppice timber in archaeological sites. Timber in the Sweet Track in Somerset (built in the winter of 3807 and 3806 BCE) has been identified as coppiced lime.[6]

    Originally, the silvicultural system now called coppicing was practiced solely for small wood production. In German this is called Niederwald, which translates as low forest. Later on in Mediaeval times[when?] farmers encouraged pigs to feed from acorns, and so some trees were allowed to grow bigger. This different silvicultural system is called in English coppice with standards. In German this is called Mittelwald (middle forest). As modern forestry (Hochwald in German, which translates as High forest) seeks to harvest timber mechanically, and pigs are generally no longer fed from acorns, both systems have declined. However, there are cultural and wildlife benefits from these two silvicultural systems, so both can be found where timber production or some other main forestry purpose (such as a protection forest against an avalanche) is not the sole management objective of the woodland.[7]

    In the 16th and 17th centuries, the technology of charcoal iron production became widely established in England, continuing in some areas until the late 19th century[8] Along with the growing need for oak bark for tanning, this required large amounts of coppice wood. With this coppice management, wood could be provided for those growing industries in principle indefinitely. This was regulated by a statute of 1544[9] of Henry VIII, which required woods to be enclosed after cutting (to prevent browsing by animals) and 12 standels (standards or mature uncut trees) to be left in each acre, to be grown into timber. Coppice with standards (scattered individual stems allowed to grow on through several coppice cycles) has been commonly used throughout most of Europe[when?] as a means of giving greater flexibility in the resulting forest product from any one area. The woodland provides the small material from the coppice as well as a range of larger timber for uses such as house building, bridge repair, cart-making and so on.

    In the 18th century coppicing in Britain began a long decline. This was brought about by the erosion of its traditional markets. Firewood was no longer needed for domestic or industrial uses as coal and coke became easily obtained and transported, and wood as a construction material was gradually replaced by newer materials. Coppicing died out first in the north of Britain and steadily contracted towards the south-east until by the 1960s active commercial coppice was heavily concentrated in Kent and Sussex.[10]


    The shoots (or suckers) may be used either in their young state for interweaving in wattle fencing (as is the practice with coppiced willows and hazel), or the new shoots may be allowed to grow into large poles, as was often the custom with trees such as oaks or ashes. This creates long, straight poles which do not have the bends and forks of naturally grown trees. Coppicing may be practiced to encourage specific growth patterns, as with cinnamon trees which are grown for their bark.

    Another, more complicated system is called compound coppice. Here some of the standards would be left, some harvested. Some of the coppice would be allowed to grow into new standards and some regenerated coppice would be there. Thus there would be three age classes.[11] Coppiced hardwoods were used extensively in carriage and shipbuilding, and they are still sometimes grown for making wooden buildings and furniture.

    Diagram illustrating the coppicing cycle over a 7- to 20-year period

    Withies for wicker-work are grown in coppices of various willow species, principally osier.

    In France, sweet chestnut trees are coppiced for use as canes and bâtons for the martial art Canne de combat (also known as Bâton français).

    Some Eucalyptus species are coppiced in a number[vague] of countries.[12]

    The Sal tree is coppiced in India,[13] and the Moringa oleifera tree is coppiced in many countries, including India.

    Sometimes former coppice is converted to high-forest woodland by the practice of singling. All but one of the regrowing stems are cut, leaving the remaining one to grow as if it were a maiden (uncut) tree.

    The boundaries of coppice coups were sometimes marked by cutting certain trees as pollards or stubs.

    United Kingdom[edit]

    Recently felled chestnut coppice near Petworth in West Sussex
    Old hornbeam coppice stools left uncut for at least 100 years. Coldfall Wood, London

    In southern Britain, coppice was traditionally hazel, hornbeam, field maple, ash, sweet chestnut, occasionally sallow, elm, small-leafed lime and rarely oak or beech, grown amongst pedunculate or sessile oak, ash or beech standards. In wet areas alder and willows were used.[14]

    Coppices provided wood for many purposes, especially charcoal before coal was economically significant in metal smelting. A minority of these woods are still operated for coppice today, often by conservation organisations, producing material for hurdle-making, thatching spars, local charcoal-burning or other crafts. The only remaining large-scale commercial coppice crop in England is sweet chestnut which is grown in parts of Sussex and Kent.[10] Much of this was established as plantations in the 19th century for hop-pole production (hop-poles are used to support the hop plant while growing hops) and is nowadays cut on a 12 to 18-year cycle for splitting and binding into cleft chestnut paling fence, or on a 20- to 35-year cycle for cleft post-and-rail fencing, or for sawing into small lengths to be finger-jointed for architectural use. Other material goes to make farm fencing and to be chipped for modern wood-fired heating systems.

    In northwest England, coppice-with-standards has been the norm,[when?] the standards often of oak with relatively little simple coppice. After World War II, a great deal was planted up with conifers or became neglected. Coppice-working almost died out, though a few men continued in the woods. A small, and growing, number of people make a living wholly or partly by working coppices in the area today.[15]


    Overstood sweet chestnut coppice stool, Banstead Woods, Surrey

    Coppice management favours a range of wildlife, often of species adapted to open woodland.[10] After cutting, the increased light allows existing woodland-floor vegetation such as bluebell, anemone and primrose to grow vigorously. Often brambles grow around the stools, encouraging insects, or various small mammals that can use the brambles as protection from larger predators. Woodpiles (if left in the coppice) encourage insects such as beetles to come into an area. The open area is then colonised by many animals such as nightingale, European nightjar and fritillary butterflies. As the coup grows, the canopy closes and it becomes unsuitable for these animals again—but in an actively managed coppice there is always another recently cut coup nearby, and the populations therefore move around, following the coppice management.

    However, most British coppices have not been managed in this way for many decades.[10] The coppice stems have grown tall (the coppice is said to be overstood), forming a heavily shaded woodland of many closely spaced stems with little ground vegetation. The open-woodland animals survive in small numbers along woodland rides or not at all, and many of these once-common species have become rare. Overstood coppice is a habitat of relatively low biodiversity—it does not support the open-woodland species, but neither does it support many of the characteristic species of high forest, because it lacks many high-forest features such as substantial dead-wood, clearings and stems of varied ages. Suitable conservation management of these abandoned coppices may be to restart coppice management, or in some cases it may be more appropriate to use singling and selective clearance to establish a high-forest structure.

    Natural occurrence[edit]

    Coppice and pollard growth is a response of the tree to damage, and can occur naturally. Trees may be browsed or broken by large herbivorous animals, such as cattle or elephants, felled by beavers or blown over by the wind. Some trees, such as linden, may produce a line of coppice shoots from a fallen trunk, and sometimes these develop into a line of mature trees. For some trees, such as the common beech (Fagus sylvatica), coppicing is more or less easy depending on the altitude : it is much more efficient for trees in the montane zone.[16]

    For energy wood[edit]

    Coppicing of willow, alder and poplar for energy wood has proven commercially successful. The Willow Biomass Project in the United States is an example of this. In this case the coppicing is done in a way that an annual or more likely a tri-annual cut can happen. This seems to maximize the production volume from the stand. Such frequent growth means the soils can be easily depleted and so fertilizers are often required. The stock also becomes exhausted after some years and so will be replaced with new plants. The method of harvesting of energy wood can be mechanized by adaptation of specialized agricultural machinery.[17]

    Species and cultivars vary in when they should be cut, regeneration times and other factors. However, full life cycle analysis has shown that poplars have a lower effect in terms of greenhouse gas emissions for energy production than alternatives.[18]



        Ash coppice stool


        Bluebells among coppice in Bysing Wood, Kent


        Hornbeam coppice, Pond Wood, Essex


        Ash coppice in Overlangbroek, Netherlands


      Coppicing in progress, note standard trees among the coppice stools, Lower Wood, Norfolk

    See also[edit]


    1. ^ "Incredible 15th-Century Japanese Technique for Growing Ultra-Straight Cedar Trees". My Modern Met. 2020-07-31. Retrieved 2020-08-19.
    2. ^ Taaffe, Gerard (2002-09-26). "Trees that tower over the past and present". The Japan Times. Retrieved 2020-08-19. ...known as dai-sugi. This is a coppiced sugi ...
    3. ^ Coup (French coup, "cut") is pronounced /ˈkp/ in this context.
    4. ^ Rackham, Oliver (1980). D.G. Buckley (ed.). "The Medieval Landscape of Essex – Archaeology in Essex to A.D. 1500" (PDF). London: 103–107.
    5. ^ Coles, J M (1978). Limbrey, Susan and J G Evans (ed.). "Man and landscape in the Somerset Levels" (PDF). The Effect of Man on the Landscape: The Lowland Zone. London: 86–89.
    6. ^ Coles, J M (1978). Limbrey, Susan and J G Evans (ed.). "Man and landscape in the Somerset Levels" (PDF). The Effect of Man on the Landscape: The Lowland Zone. London: 86–89.
    7. ^ A Critique of Silviculture Managing for Complexity Chapter 1 Historical Context of Silviculture Puettmann, K.J. et al. 2009
    8. ^ "Coppicing – A Brief History". Wandering Woodsmen - Woodland & Countryside Conservation. Retrieved 12 June 2018.
    9. ^ Forestry in the Weald, Forestry Commission Booklet 22, C. Barrington 1968
    10. ^ Jump up to:a b c d Fuller, R J; Warren, M S. "Coppiced woodlands: their management for wildlife" (PDF). JNCC. JNCC. Retrieved 6 November 2017.
    11. ^ Silviculture Concepts and Applications, Ralph D. Nyland 2002 pg. 563
    12. ^ Hamilton, Liz (June 2000). "Managing coppice in Eucalypt plantations". Trees & Native Vegetation: Farm Forestry. Department of Primary Industries, Victoria, Australia. Retrieved 2008-04-17.
    13. ^ "coppice on sal tree (Shorea robusta ) – 2714050". Retrieved 29 April 2014.
    14. ^ Rackham, Oliver (2003). Ancient Woodland; its history, vegetation and uses in England (New ed.). Castlepoint Press. ISBN 1-897604-27-0.
    15. ^ The Bill Hogarth MBE Memorial Apprenticeship Trust Retrieved 17 June 2014
    16. ^ Flore forestière française : guide écologique illustré. 1, Plaines et collines, Institut pour le développement forestier, 1989, p. 453, ISBN 2-904740-16-3 Cite: [...] rejette mal de souche à l'étage collinéen, mais très facilement à l'étage montagnard ; (Does not coppice well in the foothill zone but very easily in the montane zone).
    17. ^ Silviculture Concepts and Applications, Ralph D. Nyland 2002 Ch. 24 "Coppice Silviculture"
    18. ^ Poplar (Populus spp.) Trees for Biofuel Production by Patricia A. Townsend, et al.[dead link]

    Further reading[edit]

    • Rackham, Oliver (2001). Trees and woodland in the British landscape: the complete history of Britain's trees, woods & hedgerows. London: Phoenix Press. ISBN 1-84212-469-2.
    • Hammersley, G, 'The charcoal iron industry and its fuel 1540–1750' Econ Hist. Rev. Ser. II, 26 (1973), 593–613.

    External links[edit]

     Media related to Coppices at Wikimedia Commons

    •  The dictionary definition of coppicing at Wiktionary




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    Wij hebben altijd een ruime voorraad van top kwaliteit tweedehands Opel Movano’s staan. Met veel trots kunnen wij zeggen dat we marktleider geworden zijn in onze regio van gebruikte Opel bedrijfswagens. Vanaf april 2010 is deze vernieuwde Movano op de markt en uit de praktijk is gebleken dat het een erg betrouwbare bedrijfswagen is. De motor, een 2.3 CDTI met een inhoud van 2299 cc is voorzien van een distributieketting. Hier heeft u geen omkijken meer naar. Als u uw Movano voorziet van het correcte onderhoud met de juiste specificatie Long Life olie is het een vrij probleemloze bedrijfsauto.

    De Opel Movano is leverbaar op de gebruikte markt als gesloten bestelauto en dubbel cabine. Ze zijn leverbaar in verschillende specificaties, zoals 4 verschillende lengtes, drie dakhoogtes en als 100PK, 125PK en 150PK. Zo kiest u met gemak de Movano die exact aan uw specifieke behoeften voldoet.


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    Wat zijn de afmetingen van de buitenkant van de Movano:

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    Het gemiddelde verbruik van een Opel Movano, wat uit de praktijk is gebleken ligt tussen de 8.1 en 9.5 liter per 100 km. Dit heeft er mee te maken hoe zwaar de Opel beladen is.



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    DOD Soto Sleeping Pad for Camping - Extra Thick Self-Inflating Camping Mattress and Camping Pillow - Tan



    Material Memory Foam, Cotton

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    Item Dimensions LxWxH 82 x 54 x 4 inches

    Item Weight 7.5 Kilograms



    About this item

    • The self-inflating Soto Sleeping Pad’s 4 inches of open cell technology lets you take the comfort like memory foam on your next camping trip. You won’t feel any roots of rocks through this pad. The pad self-inflates to 70% max firmness. If you like a soft bed, you can stop there. Or if you prefer a firm mattress, use the pillow-pump to top it up. Comes with a cotton sheet, pillow, pillow cover, and carry bag.
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    • About DOD – DOD Outdoors helps you spend better time outdoors with friends and family. DOD is a leading outdoor gear company from Japan since 1997. We make products for those who favor thoughtfulness of design, style, and quality. Our gear makes camping delightful, whether sleeping, lounging, cooking, or eating. We bring cozy outdoors.
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