Brussels, 1 July 2010
European Commission seeks contract law solutions to smooth Single Market for consumers and businesses
Contracts are the basic building blocks for relationships between businesses and consumers. The European Union’s Single Market is built on contract laws. However, businesses – particularly small and medium-sized companies – are hampered in cross-border sales because they must follow different contract laws for each of the EU’s 27 Member States. Only 8% of consumers buy online from another Member State (Consumer Scoreboard 3rd ed.). In addition, 61% of cross-border sales are rejected because traders refuse to serve the consumer's country. This is largely due to regulatory barriers and legal uncertainty about the applicable rules. To address some of these problems and boost the potential of Europe's Single Market, the European Commission proposed today, in a strategic policy paper, several options for a more coherent approach to contract law. The goal is to bring more legal certainty for businesses and simpler rules for consumers. A public consultation on the policy paper will run until 31 January 2011.
The Official Web Site of the Natural Area Coding System
Natural Area Code - Wikipedia
This article is about an non-used geocode system.
The Natural Area Code (or Universal Address) is a proprietary geocode system for identifying an area anywhere on the Earth, or a volume of space anywhere around the Earth. The use of thirty alphanumeric characters instead of only ten digits makes a NAC shorter than its numerical latitude/longitude equivalent.
Four corners (law)
The Four Corners Rule is a legal doctrine that courts use to determine the meaning of a written instrument such as a contract, will, or deed as represented solely by its textual content. The doctrine states that where there is an ambiguity of terms, the Court must rely on the written instrument solely and cannot consider extraneous evidence.
In contract interpretation, the Four Corners Rule refers to a common law doctrine dating back to old English courts that requires the court to resolve contractual disputes based on the words contained in the disputed contract. The four corners doctrine is similar to the parol evidence rule, which prohibits a contracting party from introducing evidence separate from the contract that would change fundamentally the intended understanding as written in the contract. However, the Four Corners Doctrine prohibits a party from introducing evidence to interpret an unambiguous term. The doctrine also requires a court to discern what the contracting parties intended by using the whole document; no cherry picking. Most commercial contracts contain a clause entitled either "Merger", "Integration", or "Entire Agreement". In this clause, there would usually be language indicating that the parties' understanding of the other provisions of the contract are contained within the four corners of the same. Many modern contracts have taken it further to state that the entire agreement is contained within the agreement and that the agreement supersedes all prior understandings.
Four Corners Rule Contract Law: Everything You Need to Know
The four corners rule stipulates that if two parties enter into a written agreement, they cannot use oral or implied agreements to contradict the terms.3 min read
The four corners rule contract law, also known as the patrol evidence rule, stipulates that if two parties enter into a written agreement, they cannot use oral or implied agreements in court to contradict the terms of the written agreement.
The term "four corners" refers to the four corners of a document. Basically, it implies that the only legal parts of the contract are within the four corners of a page or online document. If there is evidence that exists outside of these four corners, they cannot be used in court if they directly contradict the terms of the written contract.
Types of evidence not valid in court due to the four corners rule include:
- Conversations about the signing of the contract
- Written evidence that is not part of the original written contract
- Comments from the defendant or plaintiff who are in a breach of contract case
The Four Corners of a Contract
Because of the four corners rule, it is vital to include all promise and expectations you have of the other party in the original written contract. If you fail to do so and rely on spoken promises or guarantees made outside of the contract, enforcing them may prove problematic. Any judge looking at your case will look only at the four corners, not whatever verbal agreements you made.
To protect yourself from this type of situation, it is a great idea to speak with a contract dispute attorney. They can look at the contract and make sure it is fair to both parties before you sign it.
Never trust the other party if they say that you shouldn't worry about a particular clause or statement. While you might be in agreement now, if things go south, you will have no legal support for making that party adhere to your wishes.
There are certain times when outside evidence is useful for supporting a contract, but these are mostly limited to instances of fraud or other problems. If you are in trouble and think this might apply to you, contact a contract dispute attorney for assistance. They can determine whether or not you can use outside evidence in a courtroom to defend your case.
Times When Outside Evidence Can Be Used
There are only a few instances when outside evidence is permissible for supporting a written contract. These might include:
- To correct a mistake in the original contract.
- To clear up ambiguous language in the contract and help determine the original meaning.
- To assist the judge or jury understand the contract better.
- To clarify a transcription error in the original contract.
- To prove that the original contract is invalid.
- To prove that consideration was never offered for the two parties.
- To show that one party committed fraud, interference, unconscionable behavior, or was under duress when creating the contract.
- To make changes to the original contract if there is a clause that states oral amendments are permissible.
- To name the parties involved in cases of changing names.
Using the Four Corners Rule in Contract Disputes
If your contract is in dispute in court, the judge will definitely rely on the four corners rule to keep things as simple as possible. They will use your written documents to discover each party's original intention and decide based off that unless you qualify for one of the exceptions listed above.
The court will only use external evidence as much as it needs to clear up the ambiguity or discover the original intent of the contract.
Generally, the procedure for using the four corners rule is as follows:
- The judge will read the written contract and decide if extrinsic evidence is necessary.
- The court will enforce the contract as written without extrinsic evidence if not required.
- If extrinsic evidence is necessary the judge will use the entirety of the contract in addition to the new evidence to make a ruling that is fair.
Overall, a judge will not try to discover hidden meanings or obscure definitions. Instead, they'll use the ordinary and straightforward meaning of words and clauses to determine how certain statements fit into the agreement as a whole.
If you need help with the four corners rule contract law, you can post your legal need on UpCounsel's marketplace. UpCounsel accepts only the top 5 percent of lawyers to its site. Lawyers on UpCounsel come from law schools such as Harvard Law and Yale Law and average 14 years of legal experience, including work with or on behalf of companies like Google, Menlo Ventures, and Airbnb.
What is a Lawyer?
A lawyer is a confidential person protected by law who assists a party in civil and criminal matters and is often called counselor.
Wat is een advocaat?
Een advocaat is een door de wet beschermd vertrouwenspersoon die in burgerlijke zaken en in strafzaken een partij bijstaat en dan vaak raadsman of raadsvrouw wordt genoemd.
28 USC § 607 (2011)
§607. Practice of law prohibited
An officer or employee of the Administrative Office shall not engage directly or indirectly in the practice of law in any court of the United States.
(June 25, 1948, ch. 646, 62 Stat. 915.)
Attorney is an officer of the court.
Wat is een advocaat
Er zijn een groot aantal zaken die je als burger niet zelf mag bepleiten, maar waarvoor het gebruik van een advocaat verplicht is.
Verenigingsrecht: vereniging met vaste leefregels. Bijv. de Nederlandse Orde van Advocaten.
de organisatie van een groep mensen die zich aan dezelfde regels hebben gebonden en bepaalde (ere)rechten genieten:
- een adellijke of vergelijkbaar-prestigieuze organisatie, zie: ridderorde (organisatie), ridderorde (onderscheiding); er zijn ook pseudo-orden.
- een religieuze gemeenschap, zoals een kloosterorde of een geestelijke ridderorde
- een seculiere broederschap, zoals de Orde van Vrijmetselaars, de Independent Order of Odd Fellows of de Aloude Mystieke Orde Rosae Crucis A.M.O.R.C.
- een beroepsorganisatie, bijvoorbeeld de Orde van geneesheren, de Orde van Advocaten of de Orde van architecten, zie: orde (organisatie).
een geordende groep mensen die samenwerkt om bepaalde doelen te bereiken
Een toga, soms ook tabbaard genoemd, is een wijd, lang gewaad dat gedragen wordt door kerkelijke of wereldlijke hoogwaardigheidsbekleders. Deze ceremoniële kledij benadrukt hun waardigheid en hun ambt.
De tabbaard (of tabbert of tabberd) of toge werd vroeger door mannen als een soort kamerjas over hun kleding gedragen en werd daarbij vaak afgezet met randen bont. Het lange gewaad met de wijd uitlopende onderrok die in die tijd door vrouwen werd gedragen werd ook tabbaard genoemd. Het woord verwerd later tot een algemeen woord voor alle soorten lang uitlopende wijde gewaden, zoals die van Sinterklaas.
J.C. and Shaman 1 - Symbolism statues spells and the Bible in law, key words broken down
Appear in PERSON (it is THEIRS nor yours) you do not have to use it.
A man or a woman can NEVER appear in a state court.
Een man of een vrouw kan NOOIT voor de rechter verschijnen.
appear under duress / verschijnen onder dwang
Birth-certificate and a Social security number is a car a means of transportation to the world of COMMERCE.
Once you enter into that number you become under the title of a PERSON. Once you are under the title of a PERSON especially when you are using THEIR car you are bound to it and you have to SUBMIT. You enter yourself you revenue (omzet) yourself into THEIR JURISDICTION. And everything is under THEIR control.
Duly Qualified, Dog Latin and the difference between Legal and Legalese
DOG LATIN are terms NOT words.
Rule of law under the rule of YHWH
Rule of legal is under the rule of man or the FALLEN one.
In law, a joinder is the joining of two or more legal issues together. Procedurally, a joinder allows multiple issues to be heard in one hearing or trial and is done when the issues or parties involved overlap sufficiently to make the process more efficient or more fair. It helps courts avoid hearing the same facts multiple times or seeing the same parties return to court separately for each of their legal disputes. The term is also used in the realm of contracts to describe the joining of new parties to an existing agreement.
Is this you or do you live here? (Joinder)
Dog Latin, also known as Cod Latin, macaronic Latin, mock Latin, or Canis Latinicus, refers to the creation of a phrase or jargon in imitation of Latin, often by "translating" English words (or those of other languages) into Latin by conjugating or declining them as if they were Latin words. Unlike the similarly named language game of Pig Latin (a form of playful spoken code), Dog Latin is more of a humorous device for invoking scholarly seriousness.
Sometimes "dog Latin" can mean a poor-quality attempt at writing genuine Latin.