Biblical TAX

A gerah Hebrew "גרה" is an ancient Hebrew unit of weight and currency, equivalent to one-twentieth of a shekel, a shekel being 180 barleycorns or 60 carob divided by 20 = 3 carob. This is 0.568 grams.

A gerah is in Aramaic a ma'ah "מעה" (Mishnah Hebrew pl. ma'ot "מעות" which means "coins"). It was originally a fifth of a Denarius/zuz, as seen in Exodus ("20 gerah is a shekel"), then became a sixth of a denar/Zuz, such as the Yehud coins which came in two denominations, approximately .58 gram as a ma'ah and approximately .29 gram as a half ma'ah (chatzi ma'ah), and (.58 X 6 = 3.48) which is about the weight of a Zuz/Denarius based on a 14 gram Shekel.

The Jerusalem Talmud Shekalim, in the Mishnah, debates if a kalbon, which was added when annually giving a half shekel to the Temple, was a "ma'ah" or a "chatzi ma'ah" (half ma'ah).

See also
References

Exodus 30:13 Book of Numbers 3:47

 

The Temple tax (lit. מחצית השקל the half shekel) was a tax paid by Israelites and Levites which went towards the upkeep of the Jewish Temple, as reported in the New Testament. Traditionally, Kohanim (Jewish priests) were exempt from the tax.

 

Hebrew Bible

In later centuries, the half-shekel was adopted as the amount of the Temple tax, although in Nehemiah 10:33–34 the tax is given as a third of a shekel.

 

Exodus 30:13 This is what each one who is registered shall give: half a shekel according to the shekel of the sanctuary (the shekel is twenty gerahs), half a shekel as an offering to the Lord. NRSV

After the return under Nehemiah, Jews in the Diaspora continued to pay the Temple tax. Josephus reported that at the end of the 30s CE "many tens of thousands" of Babylonian Jews guarded the convoy taking the tax to Jerusalem (Ant. 18.313).

 

Thou shalt even take five shekels a piece by the poll, after the shekel of the sanctuary shalt thou take them: (the shekel is twenty gerahs:)

 

Also we inform you that it shall not be lawful to impose tax, tribute, or custom on any of the priests, Levites, singers, gatekeepers, Nethinim, or servants (ministers) of this house of God.
 
Matthew 6:
1 Take heed that ye do not your alms before men, to be seen of them: otherwise ye have no reward of your Father which is in heaven.
2 Therefore when thou doest thine alms, do not sound a trumpet before thee, as the hypocrites do in the synagogues and in the streets, that they may have glory of men. Verily I say unto you, They have their reward.
3 But when thou doest alms, let not thy left hand know what thy right hand doeth:
4 That thine alms may be in secret: and thy Father which seeth in secret himself shall reward thee openly.

 

And it came to pass, as the camels had done drinking, that the man took a golden earring of half a shekel weight, and two bracelets for her hands of ten shekels weight of gold;

 

This they shall give, every one that passeth among them that are numbered, half a shekel after the shekel of the sanctuary: (a shekel is twenty gerahs:) an half shekel shall be the offering of the LORD.

 

Gerah:

 a weight, a 20th part of a shekel, equal to the weight of 16 barley grains or 4 to 5 carob beans

i.e. a gerah or small weight (and coin):—gerah.

 

Shekel:

  1. the chief unit of weight or measure

    1. gold - 1/10000 of a talent and equal to 220 grains

    2. silver - 1/3000 of a talent and equal to 132 grains

    3. copper - 1/1500 of a talent and equal to 528 grains

 

Talent:

a weight or worth of a talent

  1. a talent of silver weighed about 100 pounds (45 kg)

  2. a talent of gold, 200 pounds (91 kg)

 

round

  1. a round district (environs of the Jordan valley)

  2. a round loaf (of bread)

  3. a round weight, talent (of gold, silver, bronze, iron)

 

The KJV translates Strong's H3603 in the following manner: talent (48x), plain (12x), loaf (4x), piece (2x), country (1x), morsel (1x).

 

And it shall come to pass, that every one that is left in thine house shall come and crouch to him for a piece of silver and a morsel H3603 of bread, and shall say, Put me, I pray thee, into one of the priests' offices, that I may eat a piece of bread.

 

And the king of Syria said, Go to, go, and I will send a letter unto the king of Israel. And he departed, and took with him ten talents H3603 of silver, and six thousand pieces of gold, and ten changes of raiment.

 

And he dealt to every one of Israel, both man and woman, to every one a loaf H3603 of bread, and a good piece of flesh, and a flagon of wine.

 

For by means of a whorish woman a man is brought to a piece H3603 of bread: and the adulteress will hunt for the precious life.

 

Then Zedekiah the king commanded that they should commit Jeremiah into the court of the prison, and that they should give him daily a piece H3603 of bread out of the bakers' street, until all the bread in the city were spent. Thus Jeremiah remained in the court of the prison.

 

Silver:

The rich shall not give more, and the poor shall not give less than half a shekel, when they give an offering unto the LORD, to make an atonement for your souls.

 

And of cassia five hundred shekels, after the shekel of the sanctuary, and of oil olive an hin:

 

All the gold that was occupied for the work in all the work of the holy place, even the gold of the offering, was twenty and nine talents, and seven hundred and thirty shekels, after the shekel of the sanctuary.

 

And the silver of them that were numbered of the congregation was an hundred talents, and a thousand seven hundred and threescore and fifteen shekels, after the shekel of the sanctuary:

 

A bekah for every man, that is, half a shekel, after the shekel of the sanctuary, for every one that went to be numbered, from twenty years old and upward, for six hundred thousand and three thousand and five hundred and fifty men.

 

If a soul commit a trespass, and sin through ignorance, in the holy things of the LORD; then he shall bring for his trespass unto the LORD a ram without blemish out of the flocks, with thy estimation by shekels of silver, after the shekel of the sanctuary, for a trespass offering:

 

And thy estimation shall be of the male from twenty years old even unto sixty years old, even thy estimation shall be fifty shekels of silver, after the shekel of the sanctuary.

 

And all thy estimations shall be according to the shekel of the sanctuary: twenty gerahs shall be the shekel.

 

Thou shalt even take five shekels apiece by the poll, after the shekel of the sanctuary shalt thou take them: (the shekel is twenty gerahs:)

 

Of the firstborn of the children of Israel took he the money; a thousand three hundred and threescore and five shekels, after the shekel of the sanctuary:

 

And his offering was one silver charger, the weight thereof was an hundred and thirty shekels, one silver bowl of seventy shekels, after the shekel of the sanctuary; both of them were full of fine flour mingled with oil for a meat offering:

 

He offered for his offering one silver charger, the weight whereof was an hundred and thirty shekels, one silver bowl of seventy shekels, after the shekel of the sanctuary; both of them full of fine flour mingled with oil for a meat offering:

 

His offering was one silver charger, the weight whereof was an hundred and thirty shekels, one silver bowl of seventy shekels, after the shekel of the sanctuary; both of them full of fine flour mingled with oil for a meat offering:

 

His offering was one silver charger of the weight of an hundred and thirty shekels, one silver bowl of seventy shekels, after the shekel of the sanctuary; both of them full of fine flour mingled with oil for a meat offering:

 

His offering was one silver charger, the weight whereof was an hundred and thirty shekels, one silver bowl of seventy shekels, after the shekel of the sanctuary; both of them full of fine flour mingled with oil for a meat offering:

 

His offering was one silver charger (dish, platter) of the weight of an hundred and thirty shekels, a silver bowl of seventy shekels, after the shekel of the sanctuary; both of them full of fine flour mingled with oil for a meat offering:

 

His offering was one silver charger, the weight whereof was an hundred and thirty shekels, one silver bowl of seventy shekels, after the shekel of the sanctuary; both of them full of fine flour mingled with oil for a meat offering:

 

His offering was one silver charger of the weight of an hundred and thirty shekels, one silver bowl of seventy shekels, after the shekel of the sanctuary; both of them full of fine flour mingled with oil for a meat offering:

 

His offering was one silver charger, the weight whereof was an hundred and thirty shekels, one silver bowl of seventy shekels, after the shekel of the sanctuary; both of them full of fine flour mingled with oil for a meat offering:

 

His offering was one silver charger, the weight whereof was an hundred and thirty shekels, one silver bowl of seventy shekels, after the shekel of the sanctuary; both of them full of fine flour mingled with oil for a meat offering:

 

His offering was one silver charger, the weight whereof was an hundred and thirty shekels, one silver bowl of seventy shekels, after the shekel of the sanctuary; both of them full of fine flour mingled with oil for a meat offering:

 

His offering was one silver charger, the weight whereof was an hundred and thirty shekels, one silver bowl of seventy shekels, after the shekel of the sanctuary; both of them full of fine flour mingled with oil for a meat offering:

 

Each charger of silver weighing an hundred and thirty shekels, each bowl seventy: all the silver vessels weighed two thousand and four hundred shekels, after the shekel of the sanctuary:

 

The golden spoons were twelve, full of incense, weighing ten shekels a piece, after the shekel of the sanctuary: all the gold of the spoons was an hundred and twenty shekels.

 

And those that are to be redeemed from a month old shalt thou redeem, according to thine estimation, for the money of five shekels, after the shekel of the sanctuary, which is twenty gerahs.

 

And the servant answered Saul again, and said, Behold, I have here at hand the fourth part of a shekel of silver: that will I give to the man of God, to tell us our way.

 

Then Elisha said, Hear ye the word of the LORD; Thus saith the LORD, To morrow about this time shall a measure of fine flour be sold for a shekel, and two measures of barley for a shekel, in the gate of Samaria.

 

And the people went out, and spoiled the tents of the Syrians. So a measure of fine flour was sold for a shekel, and two measures of barley for a shekel, according to the word of the LORD.

 

And it came to pass as the man of God had spoken to the king, saying, Two measures of barley for a shekel, and a measure of fine flour for a shekel, shall be to morrow about this time in the gate of Samaria:

 

Also we made ordinances for us, to charge ourselves yearly with the third part of a shekel for the service of the house of our God;

 

And the shekel shall be twenty gerahs: twenty shekels, five and twenty shekels, fifteen shekels, shall be your maneh.

 

Saying, When will the new moon be gone, that we may sell corn? and the sabbath, that we may set forth wheat, making the ephah small, and the shekel great, and falsifying the balances by deceit?
 
 

Talent:

Of a talent of pure gold shall he make it, with all these vessels.

 

Of a talent of pure gold made he it, and all the vessels thereof.

 

And of the hundred talents of silver were cast the sockets of the sanctuary, and the sockets of the vail; an hundred sockets of the hundred talents, a talent for a socket.

 

And he took their king's crown from off his head, the weight whereof was talent of gold with the precious stones: and it was set on David's head. And he brought forth the spoil of the city in great abundance.

 

And as the king passed by, he cried unto the king: and he said, Thy servant went out into the midst of the battle; and, behold, a man turned aside, and brought a man unto me, and said, Keep this man: if by any means he be missing, then shall thy life be for his life, or else thou shalt pay a talent of silver.

 

And he said, All is well. My master hath sent me, saying, Behold, even now there be come to me from mount Ephraim two young men of the sons of the prophets: give them, I pray thee, a talent of silver, and two changes of garments.

 

And Pharaohnechoh put him in bands at Riblah in the land of Hamath, that he might not reign in Jerusalem; and put the land to a tribute of an hundred talents of silver, and a talent of gold.

 

And David took the crown of their king from off his head, and found it to weigh a talent of gold, and there wereprecious stones in it; and it was set upon David's head: and he brought also exceeding much spoil out of the city.

 

And the king of Egypt put him down at Jerusalem, and condemned the land in an hundred talents of silver and a talent of gold.

 

And, behold, there was lifted up a talent of lead: and this is a woman that sitteth in the midst of the ephah.

 

Then he which had received the one talent came and said, Lord, I knew thee that thou art an hard man, reaping where thou hast not sown, and gathering where thou hast not strawed:

 

And I was afraid, and went and hid thy talent in the earth: lo, there thou hast that is thine.

 

Take therefore the talent from him, and give it unto him which hath ten talents.

 

And there fell upon men a great hail out of heaven, every stone about the weight of a talent: and men blasphemed God because of the plague of the hail; for the plague thereof was exceeding great.
 
 

 

New Testament

The tax is mentioned in the Gospel of Matthew in the New Testament, when Jesus and his disciples were in Capernaum. The collectors of the temple tax (Greek: διδραχμα, didrachma) came to Peter and said "Does your teacher not pay the temple tax?" The narrative, which does not appear in the other gospels, leads to a discussion between Jesus and Peter about payment of the taxes levied by the "kings of the earth", and the miracle according to which Peter finds a stater (Greek: στατηρα), in the mouth of a fish, which is used to pay the tax due for both of them. The stater "was reckoned as equal to four drachmæ, and would therefore pay the didrachma both for Peter and his Master".

The word "temple" does not appear in this text and the illustration used in the passage refers to an example of royal and not religious taxation, prompting the question of whether this was the temple tax or a national tax.

 

After the destruction of the Temple

The first Roman attempt to halt payments of the tax was made long before the Jewish War on account of customs controls. The Senate had forbidden the export of gold and silver, but the Jews of Italy continued to pay the Temple tax. In 62 BCE L. Valerius Flaccus, governor of the province of Asia, issued an edict forbidding the Jews of his province from sending the tax to Jerusalem. After the destruction of the Temple in Jerusalem in AD70 a, new Roman tax was imposed for taxation of the Jews, the Fiscus Judaicus diverted into imperial coffers.

 

References
  1. The Gospel of Matthew: Chapters 11-28 - Page 196 William Barclay - 2001 – The Temple Tax – Matthew 17:24-7 When they came to Capernaum, those who received the half-shekel Temple tax ... the basis of Exodus 30:13, it was laid down that every male Jew over twenty years of age must pay an annual Temple tax of ...
  2. Aaron Levine The Oxford Handbook of Judaism and Economics - Page 570 - 2011 with the twenty-gerah shekel that is mentioned in the Torah (e.g., Exodus 30:13). ... In later centuries the half-shekel was adopted as the amount of the Temple Tax (although, in Nehemiah 10:32–34, the tax is given as a third of a shekel)..."
  3. The Formation of the Early Church - Page 21 Jostein Ådna - 2005 "... by specially appointed envoys from communities all over the Diaspora. For example, Josephus reports that at the end of the 30s CE "many tens of thousands" (Ant. 18.313) of Jews in Babylon shared in the convoy of the Temple tax in fear of ..."
  4. Matthew 17:24
  5. Matthew 17:25-27
  6. Charles Ellicott's Commentary for Modern Readers on Matthew 17, accessed 30 January 2017

 

Matthew 22:
15 Then went the Pharisees, and took counsel how they might entangle him in his talk.
16 And they sent out unto him their disciples with the Herodians, saying, Master, we know that thou art true, and teachest the way of God in truth, neither carest thou for any man: for thou regardest not the person of men.
17 Tell us therefore, What thinkest thou? Is it lawful to give tribute (schatting) unto Caesar, or not?
18 But Jesus perceived their wickedness, and said, Why tempt ye me, ye hypocrites?
19 Shew me the tribute money. (de schatting/belasting geld) And they brought unto him a penny. (de schattingpenning)
20 And he saith unto them, Whose is this image and superscription?
21 They say unto him, Caesar's. Then saith he unto them, Render therefore unto Caesar the things which are Caesar's; and unto God the things that are God's.
22 When they had heard these words, they marvelled, and left him, and went their way.

 
 Exodus 30:
12 When thou takest the sum of the children of Israel after their number, then shall they give every man a ransom for his soul unto the LORD, when thou numberest them; that there be no plague among them, when thou numberest them.
13 This they shall give, every one that passeth among them that are numbered, half a shekel after the shekel of the sanctuary: (a shekel is twenty gerahs:) an half shekel shall be the offering of the LORD.
14 Every one that passeth among them that are numbered, from twenty years old and above, shall give an offering unto the LORD.
15 The rich shall not give more, and the poor shall not give less than half a shekel, when they give an offering unto the LORD, to make an atonement for your souls.
16 And thou shalt take the atonement money of the children of Israel, and shalt appoint it for the service of the tabernacle of the congregation; that it may be a memorial unto the children of Israel before the LORD, to make an atonement for your souls.
 
 

A talent was an ancient unit of weight and value in Greece, Rome, and the Middle East. In the Old Testament, a talent was a unit of measurement for weighing precious metals, usually gold and silver. In the New Testament, a talent was a value of money or coin.

The talent was first mentioned in the book of Exodus within the inventory of materials used for the construction of the tabernacle:

"All the gold that was used for the work, in all the construction of the sanctuary, the gold from the offering, was twenty-nine talents ..." (Exodus 38:24, ESV)

 

The Meaning of Talent

The Hebrew term for "talent" was kikkār, meaning a round gold or silver disk, or disk-shaped loaf. In the Greek language, the word comes from tálanton, a large monetary measurement equal to 6,000 drachmas or denarii, the Greek and Roman silver coins.

How Heavy Was a Talent?

The talent was the heaviest or largest biblical unit of measurement for weight, equal to about 75 pounds or 35 kilograms. Now, imagine the opulence of this enemy king's crown when it was placed on King David's head:

"David took the crown from their king's head, and it was placed on his own head. It weighed a talent of gold, and it was set with precious stones." (2 Samuel 12:30, NIV)

In Revelation 16:21, we read that "great hail from heaven fell upon men, each hailstone about the weight of a talent." (NKJV) We get a better picture of the crushing fierceness of God's wrath when we realize these hailstones weighed about 75 pounds.

 

The Talent of Money

In the New Testament, the term "talent" meant something very different than it does today. The talents Jesus Christ spoke of in the Parable of the Unforgiving Servant (Matthew 18:21-35) and the Parable of the Talents (Matthew 25:14-30) referred to the largest unit of currency at the time.

 

Thus, a talent represented a rather large sum of money. According to New Nave's Topical Bible, one who possessed five talents of gold or silver was a multimillionaire by today's standards. Some calculate the talent in the parables to be equivalent to 20 years of wages for the common worker. Other scholars estimate more conservatively, valuing the New Testament talent somewhere between $1,000 to $30,000 dollars today.

Needless to say (but I'll say it anyway), knowing the actual meaning, weight, and value of a term like talent can help give context, deeper understanding, and better perspective when studying the Scriptures.

Dividing the Talent

Other smaller weight measurements in Scripture are the mina, shekel, pim, beka, and gerah.

One talent equaled about 60 minas or 3,000 shekels. A mina weighed approximately 1.25 pounds or .6 kilograms, and a shekel weighed about .4 ounces or 11 grams. The shekel was the most common standard used among the Hebrew people for both weight and value. The term meant simply "weight." In New Testament times, a shekel was a silver coin weighing one shekel.

The mina equaled about 50 shekels, whereas the beka was exactly one-half a shekel. The pim was about two-thirds of a shekel, and a gerah was one-twentieth of a shekel:

Dividing the Talent
Measure U.S./British Metric
Talent = 60 minas 75 pounds 35 kilograms
Mina = 50 shekels 1.25 pounds .6 kilograms
Shekel = 2 bekas .4 ounces 11.3 grams
Pim = .66 shekel .33 ounces 9.4 grams
Beka = 10 gerahs .2 ounces 5.7 grams
Gerah .02 ounces .6 grams

Koning Gorilla’s vadermoord

Exodus 22:

25 If thou lend money to any of my people that is poor by thee, thou shalt not be to him as an usurer, neither shalt thou lay upon him usury.


Leviticus 25:
35 If he take him another wife; her food, her raiment, and her duty of marriage, shall he not diminish.
And if thy brother be waxen poor, and fallen in decay with thee; then thou shalt relieve him: yea, though he be a stranger, or a sojourner; that he may live with thee.

36 Take thou no usury of him, or increase: but fear thy God; that thy brother may live with thee.
37 Thou shalt not give him thy money upon usury, nor lend him thy victuals for increase (levensmiddelen voor verhoging).

 

Deuteronomy 23:
19 Thou shalt not lend upon usury to thy brother; usury of money, usury of victuals, usury of any thing that is lent upon usury:
20 Unto a stranger thou mayest lend upon usury; but unto thy brother thou shalt not lend upon usury: that the LORD thy God may bless thee in all that thou settest thine hand to in the land whither thou goest to possess it.


Nehemiah 5:
7 Then I consulted with myself, and I rebuked the nobles, and the rulers, and said unto them, Ye exact usury (woeker), every one of his brother. And I set a great assembly against them.
10 I likewise, and my brethren, and my servants, might exact of them money and corn: I pray you, let us leave off this usury.


Psalm 15:
5 He that putteth not out his money to usury, nor taketh reward against the innocent. He that doeth these things shall never be moved.


Proverbs 28:
8 He that by usury and unjust gain increaseth his substance, he shall gather it for him that will pity the poor.


Isaiah 24:
2 And it shall be, as with the people, so with the priest; as with the servant, so with his master; as with the maid, so with her mistress; as with the buyer, so with the seller; as with the lender, so with the borrower; as with the taker of usury, so with the giver of usury to him.

5 The earth also is defiled under the inhabitants thereof; because they have transgressed the laws, changed the ordinance, broken the everlasting covenant.


Jeremiah 15:
10 Woe is me, my mother, that thou hast borne me a man of strife and a man of contention to the whole earth! I have neither lent on usury, nor men have lent to me on usury; yet every one of them doth curse me.


Ezekiel 18:
8 He that hath not given forth upon usury, neither hath taken any increase, that hath withdrawn his hand from iniquity, hath executed true judgment between man and man,
13 Hath given forth upon usury, and hath taken increase: shall he then live? he shall not live: he hath done all these abominations; he shall surely die; his blood shall be upon him.
17 That hath taken off his hand from the poor, that hath not received usury nor increase, hath executed my judgments, hath walked in my statutes; he shall not die for the iniquity of his father, he shall surely live.


Ezekiel 22:
12 In thee have they taken gifts to shed blood; thou hast taken usury and increase, and thou hast greedily gained of thy neighbours by extortion, and hast forgotten me, saith the Lord GOD.


Matthew 25:
27 Thou oughtest therefore to have put my money to the exchangers, and then at my coming I should have received mine own with usury.


Luke 19:
23 Wherefore then gavest not thou my money into the bank, that at my coming I might have required mine own with usury?

 

computation, proportion to be paid, tribute, tax
berekening, te betalen deel, hulde, belasting

 

Exodus 29:

27 And thou shalt sanctify the breast of the wave offering, and the shoulder of the heave offering, which is waved, and which is heaved up, of the ram of the consecration, even of that which is for Aaron, and of that which is for his sons:
28 And it shall be Aaron's and his sons' by a statute for ever from the children of Israel: for it is an heave offering: and it shall be an heave offering from the children of Israel of the sacrifice of their peace offerings, even their heave offering unto the LORD.


Leviticus 7:

14 And of it he shall offer one out of the whole oblation for an heave offering unto the LORD, and it shall be the priest's that sprinkleth the blood of the peace offerings.
32 And the right shoulder shall ye give unto the priest for an heave offering of the sacrifices of your peace offerings.


Numbers 15:

19 Then it shall be, that, when ye eat of the bread of the land, ye shall offer up an heave offering unto the LORD.
20 Ye shall offer up a cake of the first of your dough for an heave offering: as ye do the heave offering of the threshingfloor, so shall ye heave it.
21 Of the first of your dough ye shall give unto the LORD an heave offering in your generations.


Numbers 18:

11 And this is thine; the heave offering of their gift, with all the wave offerings of the children of Israel: I have given them unto thee, and to thy sons and to thy daughters with thee, by a statute for ever: every one that is clean in thy house shall eat of it.
24 But the tithes of the children of Israel, which they offer as an heave offering unto the LORD, I have given to the Levites to inherit: therefore I have said unto them, Among the children of Israel they shall have no inheritance.
26 Thus speak unto the Levites, and say unto them, When ye take of the children of Israel the tithes which I have given you from them for your inheritance, then ye shall offer up an heave offering of it for the LORD, even a tenth part of the tithe.
27 And this your heave offering shall be reckoned unto you, as though it were the corn of the threshingfloor, and as the fulness of the winepress.
28 Thus ye also shall offer an heave offering unto the LORD of all your tithes, which ye receive of the children of Israel; and ye shall give thereof the LORD'S heave offering to Aaron the priest.
 29 Out of all your gifts ye shall offer every heave offering of the LORD, of all the best thereof, even the hallowed part thereof out of it.


Numbers 31:

29 Take it of their half, and give it unto Eleazar the priest, foran heave offering of the LORD.
41 And Moses gave the tribute, which was the LORD'S heave offering, unto Eleazar the priest, as the LORD commanded Moses.


Deuteronomy 12:

11 Then there shall be a place which the LORD your God shall choose to cause his name to dwell there; thither shall ye bring all that I command you; your burnt offerings, and your sacrifices, your tithes, and the heave offering of your hand, and all your choice vows which ye vow unto the LORD:
17 Thou mayest not eat within thy gates the tithe of thy corn, or of thy wine, or of thy oil, or the firstlings of thy herds or of thy flock, nor any of thy vows which thou vowest, nor thy freewill offerings, or heave offering of thine hand:


Leviticus 10:

15 The heave shoulder and the wave breast shall they bring with the offerings made by fire of the fat, to wave it for a wave offering before the LORD; and it shall be thine, and thy sons' with thee, by a statute for ever; as the LORD hath commanded.


Numbers 6:

20 And the priest shall wave them for a wave offering before the LORD: this is holy for the priest, with the wave breast and heave shoulder: and after that the Nazarite may drink wine.

 

Ezra 4:
13 Be it known now unto the king, that, if this city be builded, and the walls set up again, then will they not pay toll, tribute, and custom, H1983 and so thou shalt endamage the revenue of the kings.
20 There have been mighty kings also over Jerusalem, which have ruled over all countries beyond the river; and toll, tribute, and custom, H1983 was paid unto them.

Ezra 7:
24 Also we certify you, that touching any of the priests and Levites, singers, porters, Nethinims, or ministers of this house of God, it shall not be lawful to impose toll, tribute, or custom, H1983 upon them.

 

2Kings 23:
33 And Pharaohnechoh put him in bands at Riblah in the land of Hamath, that he might not reign in Jerusalem; and put the land to a tribute of an hundred talents of silver, and a talent of gold.

Belastingen in het Romeinse Rijk

Heel Zuid-Europa, Midden-Europa en ook het zuiden van Nederland was tijdens het Romeinse Rijk veroverd door de Romeinen. De samenleving in de tijd van de Romeinen verschilt erg van de samenleving waarin wij nu in leven.Ook op het gebied van belastingen.

De rivier de Rijn was de noordgrens van het Romeinse rijk. De Romeinen waren bijna overal de baas. Zodra de Romeinen een volk overwonnen hadden, werd hun grondgebied eigendom van de Romeinen. Ieder veroverd land, dus ook het zuiden van Nederland, werd een Romeinse provincie. De bewoners moesten voor het gebruik van de grond betalen.

Deze grondbelasting (Tributum soli) was 1 van de belangrijkste belastingen in die tijd. Met de opbrengsten hiervan zijn vooral forten gebouwd en wegen aangelegd. De Romeinen zelf betaalden geen belasting. (vreemden moeten betalen)

 

Belastingen in de Middeleeuwen

De middeleeuwse samenleving was ingedeeld in standen. Bovenaan stond de koning of keizer met daaronder de geestelijken. Daarna de edelen (graven, hertogen en ridders) en onderaan de boeren en burgers.

Rond 800 behoorde Nederland tot het Frankische rijk, met Karel de Grote als koning. Het was opgedeeld in een heleboel kleine landen: graafschappen, hertogdommen en bisdommen. Aan het hoofd van een graafschap stond een graaf die door de koning was aangesteld. De bisschoppen en hertogenhadden grote stukken land (bisdommen en hertogdommen) en waren daarover de baas. 

Lokaal en regionaal

In de Middeleeuwen waren de belastingen lokaal en regionaal geregeld. Als de koning geld nodig had, vroeg hij een bedrag (een bede) aan de graven. De graven haalden dit bedrag binnen door belasting te heffen. Eerst ging het om eenmalige bijdragen bij bepaalde gelegenheden. Bijvoorbeeld voor een huwelijksfeest of de bouw van een kasteel. Maar langzamerhand werden de beden standaard.  Zo werden ze een vast inkomen voor de heersers.

Het geld werd toen vooral gebruikt voor de hofhouding, de rechtspraak en voor het voeren van oorlogen (defensie). De graven inden belasting van de boeren vaak over hun hoeveelheid grond. Dat was een makkelijke manier om de financiële positie van iemand in te schatten. De boeren betaalden meestal in natura, met bijvoorbeeld graan of vlees.  (Eerstelingenfeest /First Fruits)

Opkomst van steden

Vanaf de 12e eeuw groeiden een aantal dorpen uit tot grote plaatsen. Sommige plaatsen kregen van hun heer (de graaf, de hertog of de bisschop) stadsrechten. Ze mochten een muur om het dorp bouwen en ze mochten wekelijks een markt houden. De stad kreeg ook het recht om belasting te heffen. Daarmee kon men de verplichtingen tegenover de vorst voldoen. Maar ook eigen uitgaven betalen. Uitgaven voor bijvoorbeeld het aanleggen van straten, bouwen van muren en betalen van poortwachters en nachtwakers.

In de steden werden vooral accijnzen ingevoerd op 1e levensbehoeften uit die tijd. Zoals brandhout, zout, zeep, graan, meel, bier, wijn, vlees, turf en kolen. Maar er werd ook tol geheven op bijvoorbeeld het gebruik van markten en bruggen en het vervoer van goederen.

 

Belastingen tijdens de Spaanse overheersing en de 10e penning van Alva

Nederland komt halverwege de 16e eeuw terecht onder de macht van de Spaanse koning Philips II. Er is veel verzet tegen zijn macht en ideeën. Zo veel dat Philips II zijn opperbevelhebber van het Spaanse leger, Alva, naar Nederland stuurt om de orde te herstellen.

100e penning

Alva haalde zich veel ellende op de hals toen hij het stelsel van beden wilde vervangen door algemene belastingen. Deze algemene belastingen waren in elke provincie van Nederland hetzelfde. Iedereen moest bijvoorbeeld 1% van de waarde van alle goederen aan de Spaanse koning afstaan (de 100epenning).

Toen Alva de 10e penning wilde invoeren werd het verzet tegen hem groter en groter. De 10e penning was een soort btw van 10%. Men moest deze betalen bij elke koop en verkoop van alle goederen. Met de 10e penning wilde Alva een eind maken aan de financiële macht van de adel en de stadsbesturen.

Verzet tegen belastingplan

Het verzet tegen het belastingplan leidde, samen met de onderdrukking van het protestantisme, tot de Tachtigjarige oorlog tegen de Spanjaarden (1568-1648). Dit was onder het bewind van Willem van Oranje. Toen Den Briel werd ingenomen trok Alva in 1572 zijn belastingplannen in. De vernieuwing van het belastingstelsel was van de baan. Er zijn wel plakkaten gedrukt van de 10e penning, maar de machtige steden hebben deze vorm van belasting nooit doorgevoerd. Ze kochten het af door jaarlijks een bepaald bedrag aan de Spanjaarden te betalen. Kort na het vertrek van Alva ontstond de Republiek der Zeven Verenigde Nederlanden.

 

Belastingen tijdens de Gouden Eeuw

Tijdens de Tachtigjarige oorlog werd de Republiek der Zeven Verenigde Nederlanden een rijk en welvarend land. De Nederlandse koopvaardijschepen voeren de hele wereld over. Om specerijen (zoals peper, kaneel, kruidnagel en muskaat), koffie, thee en katoen uit Indië te halen. Zijde en porselein uit China en Japan. Suiker uit Brazilië en walvisspek uit Noorwegen en Groenland. Amsterdam was het middelpunt van deze handel.

Convooien en licenten

De Staat der Nederlanden ontstond in 1579, maar er was nauwelijks een belastingstelsel dat zorgde voor inkomsten van die Staat. Daar voelden de provinciën zich te veel zelfstandige staten voor. De enige algemene belastingen waren de convooien en licenten. Dit waren een soort in- en uitvoerrechten (douanerechten).

Convooigeld was een vergoeding die betaald moest worden voor de bescherming van Nederlandse oorlogsschepen aan de koopvaarders en vissers. Deze bescherming was tegen vijanden (Spanjaarden en later ook andere landen) en zeerovers.

Het licentgeld was een vergoeding voor het recht om handel te drijven met de vijand.

De dienst Convooien en Licenten van de admiraliteitscolleges (de marine van toen) inden de convooien en licenten. Zij moesten daarmee in een tijd van sterke concurrentie de Republiek en de koopvaarders beschermen. Na de Vrede van Munster in 1648 kregen de convooien en licenten het karakter van gewoon invoerrecht.

Accijnzen

Naast de algemene convooien en licenten waren de belastingen in de 16e tot en met de 18e eeuw vooral regionale en plaatselijke heffingen. Wel had het bestuur van de Republiek centraal opgelegd hoeveel iedere provincie moest betalen aan het bestuur (de Staten-Generaal).

Als er geld nodig was in de steden of provincies werden er belastingen geheven. Zo nodig werden nieuwe heffingen verzonnen. Dat waren vooral heffingen op het gebruik van 1e levensbehoeften. Zoals de accijnzen op wijn en zout, maar ook op koffie en thee. Omdat accijnzen de belangrijkste belastingen van die tijd waren, was er geen een eerlijke verdeling van deze lasten. De accijnzen werden namelijk geheven op 1e levensbehoeften. Of je nou rijk was of straatarm, je betaalde hetzelfde.

Toch werden er toen ook al belastingen geheven over de welvaart van de mensen. De welvaart van iemand werd in die tijd bepaald door het grondbezit en bezit van huizen. Maar ook aan bijvoorbeeld het aantal haardsteden in een huis of het aantal dienstboden.

 

De Franse bezetting en een algemeen belastingstelsel

Aan het einde van de 18e eeuw vielen de Fransen Nederland binnen. De Republiek der Nederlanden hield in 1795 op te bestaan en de 'Franse' grondwet en het bestuur van Nederland werd centraal gevormd. Een eenheidsstaat was geboren en dus moest er ook eenheid in belastingen komen.

Belastingstelsel voor de hele republiek

Minister Izaak Gogel zorgde ervoor dat in juli 1805 een belastingstelsel werd goedgekeurd dat in de hele republiek zou gelden. Er kwam ook 1 centraal ambtelijk apparaat om de belastingen te innen. Hij voerde een algemeen belastingstelsel in dat voor het eerst meer rekening hield met de draagkracht van de belastingbetaler. Dus: hoe rijker iemand was, hoe meer belasting hij moest betalen.

Een heleboel accijnzen verdwenen en belasting op inkomen kreeg een belangrijkere plaats in het stelsel. Zo betaalden degenen die in rijkdom leefden hogere personele belasting. Hun rijkdom werd afgemeten aan het aantal dienstboden, koets- en rijpaarden, haardsteden en ramen en deuren in de huizen die ze bezaten. En aan de waarde van hun grond.

De belastingambtenaar kwam toen nog aan huis om ter plekke het aantal dienstboden, paarden, ramen en dergelijke te tellen. De afhandeling van de belastingzaken vond daarna plaats in het dorpshuis of het plaatselijke café.

Belasting op luxe goederen

Er kwam in de 19e eeuw ook een belasting op luxe goederen zoals waaiers, parasols, pruiken, handschoenen en haarpoeder. Men vond namelijk dat de mensen die zich dit soort luxe goederen konden veroorloven, wel wat meer konden missen en dus meer belasting konden betalen. Als bewijs van betaling werd een zegel aangebracht op de luxe goederen.

In de loop van de 19e eeuw kwam het zwaartepunt van de belastingheffing daarmee steeds meer op inkomsten, vermogen en winsten te liggen. De voorlopers van de huidige inkomstenbelasting en vennootschapsbelasting zijn in de 19de eeuw ingevoerd.

Sinds het 1e algemene belastingstelsel van Gogel zijn er in de 19e en 20ste eeuw nog veel grote en kleinere aanpassingen doorgevoerd. Uitbreidingen maar ook vereenvoudigingen van het stelsel.

 

 

 Basis persoonsgegevens

Basisregistratie Personen

In de Basisregistratie Personen (BRP) zijn persoonsgegevens geregistreerd, zoals gegevens over geboorte, verhuizing, huwelijk, vertrek naar het buitenland en overlijden. Niet alle gegevens staan in de BRP. Historische gegevens zijn soms niet helemaal volledig digitaal beschikbaar. Per 01-10-1994 zijn de meeste persoonsgegevens gedigitaliseerd:

  • Adresgegevens zijn opgenomen vanaf 01-10-1994.
  • Kinderen geboren op of na 01-01-1966 zijn op de digitale persoonslijst van ouder(s) vermeld.

Gegevens van voor die tijd staan niet in de BRP en zijn niet digitaal beschikbaar. Deze gegevens heeft de gemeente in haar papieren archief bewaard.

Verhuizing doorgeven

U kunt hier bij steeds meer Nederlandse gemeenten uw verhuizing in Nederland of naar het buitenland doorgeven.

 Financieel

Mijn Toeslagen

Met Mijn toeslagen regelt u uw zorgtoeslag, huurtoeslag, kindgebonden budget en kinderopvangtoeslag. Zo kunt u er een toeslag aanvragen en uw gegevens wijzigen.

Mijn Belastingdienst

Met Mijn Belastingdienst regelt u uw belastingen. Zo kunt u er aangifte inkomstenbelasting doen en uw rekeningnummer wijzigen.

Mijn geregistreerd inkomen

De Belastingdienst registreert uw inkomen. Overheidsorganisaties gebruiken dit inkomen om bijvoorbeeld de hoogte van uw eigen bijdrage of toelage te berekenen. 

LBIO

Het Landelijk Bureau Inning Onderhoudsbijdragen (LBIO) incasseert kinder- en partneralimentatie. Hier heeft u inzage in uw zaakgegevens.

Mijn SVB

Op Mijn SVB van de Sociale Verzekeringsbank kunt u Kinderbijslag, AOW en Anw aanvragen, een wijziging doorgeven of uw gegevens bekijken.

 Werk en loopbaan

mijn pensioenoverzicht.nl

Op mijnpensioenoverzicht.nl ziet u, naast uw AOW, hoeveel pensioen u hebt en bij welke pensioenuitvoerder (pensioenfonds of -verzekeraar). Ook ziet u wat uw nabestaanden krijgen als u overlijdt.

Mijn UWV

Op MijnUWV regelt u uw persoonlijke zaken met UWV. Daarnaast vindt u hier gegevens over uw werk en inkomen.

Digitaal Klantdossier 

Het Digitaal Klantdossier voor Werk en Inkomen (DKD) geeft een overzicht van uw eigen gegevens die door gemeenten en UWV zijn vastgelegd. Het gaat hierbij om persoonsgegevens, arbeids- en uitkeringsgegevens en gegevens over opleiding en re-integratie.

 Zorg en gezondheid

 Donorregister

In het Donorregister kunt u vastleggen of u uw organen na uw overlijden wel of niet beschikbaar stelt voor transplantatie.

 Mijn PGB

Het Persoonsgebonden budget (PGB) is een geldbedrag, waarmee mensen met een beperking hun eigen zorg kunnen inkopen. Met Mijn PGB regelt u digitaal persoonlijke zaken met het SVBServicecentrum PGB. Zo kunt u uw PGB-verantwoording maken, gegevens inzien en wijzigen en meldingen doorgeven.

 Wonen

 Kadaster 

Het Kadaster registreert gegevens over het vastgoed in Nederland. U kunt informatie opvragen over de ligging van vastgoed, maar ook aanverwante zaken zoals eigendom en hypotheek, energielabels en de ligging van kabels en leidingen. WOZ Gemeenten bieden inzicht in de waardering van uw onroerende zaken. U kunt een overzicht zien van: uw onroerende zaak, de actuele WOZ-waarde, enkele algemene waarderingsgegevens en taxatieverslagen. U treft hier ook aan de adres- en gebouwgegevens van uw woning uit de Basisregistratie Adressen en Gebouwen (BAG).

 Vervoer

RDW 

De RDW draagt bij aan een veilig, schoon, economisch en geordend wegverkeer. De RDW is onder meer verantwoordelijk voor voertuigkentekens en de Algemene Periodieke Keuring (APK). De RDW houdt het Basis Kenteken Register (BKR) bij.

 Onderwijs

MijnDUO

Studenten, ouders en terugbetalers kunnen in MijnDUO terecht voor financieringsaanvragen en het doorgeven van wijzigingen. In MijnDUO kunt u ook uw diplomagegevens inzien en downloaden.

 

Source: https://beslagrecht.nl/beslagvrije-voet/hoogte-va-de-beslagvrije-voet

 

man's TAX

HERE ARE LAWS IN AMERICA MOST DON'T KNOW, BUT SHOULD!!!!
 1. The IRS is not a US government agency it is an agency of the IMF (International Monetary Fund) (Diversified Metal Products v I.R.S et al. CV-93-405E-EJE U.S.D.C.D.I., Public Law 94-564, Senate report 94- 1148 pg. 5967, Reorganization Plan No. 26, Public Law 102-391)

  • (Dutch Version: file:///D:/Downloads/cr1777.pdf)
  • Geen pluraliteit. De Staat der Nederlanden en de Belastingdienst zijn geen te onderscheiden rechtspersonen en daarmee geen afzonderlijke dragers van (privaatrechtelijke) rechten en verplichtingen. Zij zijn als één en dezelfde (publiekrechtelijke) rechtspersoon aan te merken, namelijk de Staat. 5. Verzoeker stelt over een steunvordering te beschikken in de vorm van een schuld van verweerster aan de Belastingdienst. De Belastingdienst is (eveneens) onderdeel van de Staat der Nederlanden en heeft geen zelfstandige rechtspersoonlijkheid. (Rechtbank Den Haag Datum uitspraak 27-06-2017 Datum publicatie 29-06-2017 ZaaknummerC/09/531730 / FT RK 17/850 Rechtsgebieden Insolventierecht)

 

 2. The IMF (International Monetary Fund) is an agency of the U.N. (Black's Law Dictionary 6th Ed. page 816) 

 

 3. The United States has NOT had a Treasury since 1921 (41 Stat. Ch 214 page 654)

 

Source: https://www.rtlnieuws.nl/economie/home/nederlandse-staatsschuld-levert-flink-geld-op

  • Onderstaande tekst is een samenvatting over dit onderwerp uit het boek ‘Modernising Money‘.

    De overheid heeft drie belangrijke middelen om aan geld te komen:

    • Belastingen en premies – zoals inkomsten- en vermogensbelasting, premies sociale lasten verzekeringen, belasting toegevoegde waarde (BTW), belastingen en accijns op energie, alcohol, en dergelijke.
    • Staatsleningen – dit geschiedt hoofdzakelijk door middel van staatsobligaties.
    • Geldcreatie – onder het huidige monetaire systeem zijn de opbrengsten op dit gebied discutabel.

    Wanneer een overheid meer geld uitgeeft dan zij ontvangt aan belastingen e.d. noemt men het verschil het ‘begrotingstekort'. Wanneer zij meer geld binnenkrijgt dan zij uitgeeft wordt dit verschil het ‘begrotingsoverschot'genoemd.

    Overschotten zijn in Nederland een zeer zeldzaam verschijnsel. Alleen vlak voor de crisis was er sprake van een overschot. Normaal gesproken geeft de overheid meer geld uit dan zij binnen krijgt en leent het verschil, met een stijgende staatsschuld als gevolg. De staatsschuld zal naar verwachting in 2014 stijgen naar 466 miljard euro. Ware het, dat er vaker overschotten waren geweest, dan zouden die de staatsschuld mogelijk hebben verlaagd.

    Van wie leent de overheid?

    Liever dan het te lenen van banken, leent onze overheid bij voorkeur op de financiële markten – voornamelijk bij pensioenfondsen en verzekeringmaatschappijen. Deze instellingen lenen geld aan de overheid door staatsobligaties te kopen die de overheid voor dit doel uitgeeft. Vele instellingen kiezen hiervoor, omdat er bij staatsobligaties nauwelijks sprake is van een risico.

    De Staat der Nederlanden heeft altijd aan haar betalingsverplichtingen voldaan en het is niet aannemelijk dat zij zich ooit aan die verplichtingen zal onttrekken. Dit komt omdat de staat altijd de mogelijkheid heeft om door middel van het heffen van belastingen aan voldoende middelen te komen. Bovendien is de markt van staatsobligaties stabiel en liquide, en biedt deze doorgaans een hogere rentevergoeding dan bij andere risicoloze investeringen (zoals bijvoorbeeld contant geld).

    Source: https://onsgeld.nu/geldsysteem/huidige-systeem/staatsschuld

Source: http://rudhar.com/economi/monydebt/nl/022cengo.htm

Source: https://govbanknotes.wordpress.com/2017/07/04/the-united-nations-has-taken-over-all-member-nations/

 

4. The U.S. Treasury is now the IMF (International Monetary Fund) (Presidential Documents Volume 24-No. 4 page 113, 22 U.S.C. 285-2887)

  •  
     Het Internationaal Monetair Fonds of Internationaal Muntfonds is een VN-organisatie voor internationale samenwerking op monetair gebied, bestrijding van financiële crises en kredietverlening voor staten met betalingsproblemen. Wikipedia
  • Netherlands: Table of Common Indicators Required for Surveillance (concluded) (As of March 9, 2017)
    External Current Account Balance
    Q4/16 03/17 Q Q Q O, O, O, O O, O, O, O, O
    Exports and Imports of Goods and Services
    Q4/16 03/17 Q Q Q
    GDP/GNP Q4/16 03/17 Q Q Q O, O, O, O LO, O, O, O, O
    Gross External Debt Q3/16 12/16 Q Q Q
    International Investment Position 7/
    Q3/16 12/16 Q Q Q

    1/ Includes reserve assets pledged of otherwise encumbered. 2/ Pertains to contribution to EMU aggregate. 3/ Both market-based and officially determined, including discount rates, money market rates, rates on treasury bills, notes and bonds. 4/ Foreign, domestic bank, and domestic nonbank financing. 5/ The general government consists of the central government (budgetary funds, extra budgetary funds, and social security funds) and state and local governments. 6/ Including currency and maturity composition. 7/ Includes external gross financial asset and liability positions vis-à-vis nonresidents. 8/ Daily (D); weekly (W); monthly (M); quarterly (Q); annually (A); irregular (I); and not available (NA). 9/ Reflects the assessment provided in the data ROSC (published on January 10, 2008, and based on the findings of the mission that took place October 3-17, 2007) for the dataset corresponding to the variable in each row. The assessment indicates whether international standards concerning concepts and definitions, scope, classification/sectorization, and basis for recording are fully observed (O); largely observed (LO); largely not observed (LNO); not observed (NO); and not available (NA). 10/ Same as footnote 9, except referring to international standards concerning (respectively) source data, assessment of source data, statistical techniques, assessment and validation of intermediate data and statistical outputs, and revision studies.

Source: http://deeplink.rechtspraak.nl/uitspraak?id=ECLI:NL:RBDHA:2017:7140

 

 5. The United States does not have any employees because there is no longer a United States! No more reorganizations. After over 200 years of bankruptcy it is finally over. (Executive Order 12803)

 

 6. The FCC, CIA, FBI, NASA, and all of the other alphabet gangs were never part of the U.S. government. Even though the "U.S. Government" held stock in the agencies. (U.S. v Strang, 254 US 491 Lewis v. US, 680 F.2nd, 1239)

 

 7. Social Security Numbers are issued by the U.N. through the IMF (International Monetary Fund). The application for a Social Security Number is the SS5 Form. The Department of the Treasury (IMF) issues the SS5 forms not the Social Security Administration. The new SS5 forms do not state who publishes them while the old form states they are Department of the Treasury. (20 CFR (Council on Foreign Relations) Chap. 111 Subpart B. 422.103 (b))

 

 8. There are NO Judicial courts in America and have not been since 1789. Judges do not enforce Statutes and Codes. Executive Administrators enforce Statutes and Codes. (FRC v. GE 281 US 464 Keller v. PE 261 US 428, 1 Stat 138-178)

 

 9. There have NOT been any judges in America since 1789. There have just been administrators. (FRC v. GE 281 US 464 Keller v. PE 261 US 428 1 Stat. 138-178)

 10. According to GATT (The General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade) you MUST have a Social Security number. (House Report (103-826)

 

 11. New York City is defined in Federal Regulations as the United Nations. Rudolph Guiliani stated on C-Span that "New York City is the capital of the World." For once, he told the truth. (20 CFR (Council on Foreign Relations) Chap. 111, subpart B 44.103 (b) (2) (2) )

 

 12. Social Security is not insurance or a contract. Nor is there a Trust Fund. (Helvering v. Davis 301 US 619 Steward Co. v. Davis 301 US 548)

 

 13. Your Social Security check comes directly from the IMF (International Monetary Fund), which is an agency of the United Nations. (It says U.S. Department of Treasury at the top left corner, which again is part of the U.N. as pointed out above)

 

 14. You own NO property, Slaves can't own property. Read carefully the Deed to the property you think is yours. you are listed as a TENANT. (Senate Document 43, 73rd Congress 1st Session)

 

 15. The Most powerful court in America is NOT the United States Supreme court, but the Supreme Court of Pennsylvania. (42 PA. C.S.A. 502)

 

 16. The King of England financially backed both sides of the American Revolutionary War. (Treaty of Versailles-July 16, 1782 Treaty of Peace 8 Stat 80)

 

 17. You CANNOT use the U.S. Constitution to defend yourself because you are NOT a party to it. (Padelford Fay & Co. v The Mayor and Alderman of the City of Savannah 14 Georgia 438, 520)

 

 18. America is a British Colony. The 'United States' is a corporation, not a land mass and it existed before the Revolutionary War and the British Troops did not leave until 1796 (Republica v. Sweers 1 Dallas 43, Treaty of Commerce 8 Stat 116, Treaty of Peace 8 Stat 80, IRS Publication 6209, Articles of Association October 20, 1774)

 

 19. Britain is owned by the Vatican. (Treaty of 1213)

 

 20. The Pope can abolish any law in the United States (Elements of Ecclesiastical Law Vol. 1, 53-54)

 

 21. A 1040 Form is for Tribute paid to Britain (IRS Publication 6209)

 

 22. The Pope claims to own the entire planet through the laws of conquest and discovery. (Papal Bulls of 1495 & 1493)

 

 23. The Pope has ordered the genocide and enslavement of Millions of people. (Papal Bulls of 1455 & 1493) 

 

 24. The Pope's laws are obligatory on everyone. (Bened. XIV., De Syn. Dioec, lib, ix, c. vii, n. 4. Prati, 1844 Syllabus Prop 28, 29, 44)

 

 25. We are slaves and own absolutely nothing, NOT even what we think are our children. (Tillman vs. Roberts 108 So. 62, Van Koten vs. Van Koten 154 N.E. 146, Senate Document 438 73rd Congress 1st Session, Wynehammer v. People 13 N.Y. REP 378, 481)

 

 26. Military Dictator George Washington divided up the States (Estates) into Districts (Messages and papers of the Presidents Volume 1 page 99 1828 Dictionary of Estate)

 

 27. "The People" does NOT include you and me. (Barron vs. Mayor and City Council of Baltimore 32 U.S. 243) 

 

 28. It is NOT the duty of the police to protect you. Their job is to protect THE CORPORATION and arrest code breakers. (SAPP vs. Tallahassee, 348 So. 2nd. 363, REiff vs. City of Phila. 477 F. 1262, Lynch vs. NC Dept. of Justice 376 S.E. 2nd. 247)

 

 29. Everything in the "United States" is up for Sale: bridges, roads, water, schools, hospitals, prisons, airports, etc, etc... Did anybody take time to check who bought Klamath Lake?? (Executive Order 12803)

 

 30. "We are human capital (Executive Order 13037)

 

 31. The U.N.-United Nations has financed the operations of the United States government for over 50 years (U.S. Department of Treasury is part of the U.N. see above) and now owns every man, woman and child in America. The U.N. also holds all of the land of America in Fee Simple.

 

Source: http://www.civil-liberties.com/

http://www.un.org/en/sc/members/

http://www.un.org/en/member-states/index.html

https://www.imf.org/en/News/Articles/2018/02/28/ms022818-kingdom-of-the-netherlands-concluding-statement-of-the-2018-article-iv-consultation

https://www2.deloitte.com/content/dam/Deloitte/global/Documents/About-Deloitte/central-europe/ce-global-human-capital-trends.pdf

 

https://www.ustaxcourt.gov/forms.htm

https://www.irs.gov/individuals/understanding-your-cp3219n-notice

https://www.starkman.com/taxcourt/petition.shtml

https://www.irs.gov/irm/part35/irm_35-002-001